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Monthly DNA

21 Jul, 2022

32 Min Read


GS-II : Governance Citizens and citizenship


Government data claimed that over 3.9 lakh Indians gave up their citizenship in the past three years to settle abroad.


  • More than 1.63 lakh Indians relinquished their citizenship in 2021 alone and the majority had opted the citizenship in the USA
  • Between 2019 and 2020 more than 1.44 lakh Indians gave their citizenship and the most common reason given was ‘personal’.
  • The United States emerged as the top choice among 103 countries where the emigrant settled.
  • Apart from choosing countries such as Singapore (7,046) and Sweden (3,7540), many have also renounced their citizenship for Bahrain, Angola, Iran, and Iraq.
  • The maximum number of Indians who had given Indian citizenship in 2021 and went to the United States of America (78,284), Australia (23,533), Canada (21,597), United Kingdom (14,637).

About Citizenship in India

  • Citizenship refers to the individual relationship with the state. Citizens are full members of the Indian state and are bound by its law and order.
  • Citizenship is listed in the Constitution's Union List and hence it falls under the sole control of the Indian parliament
  • Though the term “citizen” is not defined in the constitution. Part 2 of the Constitution describes the numerous types of people who are eligible for citizenship (Articles 5 to 11).

No dual Citizenship: Under the Indian Citizenship Act, 1955, Persons of Indian Origin are not allowed to hold the citizenship of two countries.

Surrendering the passport: If a person has ever held an Indian Passport and then obtains the passport of some other country, then they will be required to surrender their Indian Passport immediately after they gain the nationality of the other country.

Various ways to obtain Indian citizenship (The Citizenship Act 1955)

  • Citizenship conferred by birth
  • Citizenship through descent
  • Citizenship through registration
  • Naturalization leads to citizenship.
  • Territorial incorporation (by the Government of India)

Termination of citizenship:

  • Renunciation: Any Indian citizen who is also a national of another country who renounces his Indian citizenship in the prescribed manner through a declaration cease to be an Indian citizen.
  • Termination: An Indian citizen's citizenship can be revoked if he or she knowingly or voluntarily adopts the citizenship of another country.
  • Deprivation: In some cases, the Government of India may deprive a person of his citizenship. However, this does not apply to all citizens. Conditions for deprivation are as follows:
  • If he/she obtained citizenship by fraud mean.
  • If the Citizen has shown disloyalty to the Constitution of India.
  • If the Citizen has unlawfully traded or communicated during times of war.
  • Within 5 years of naturalization, the said citizen is imprisoned for a term of two years.
  • If the Citizen has been ordinarily resident out of India for 7 years.

Reason for the renouncement of Citizenship:

The reasons change widely from country to country, and among socio-economic and ethnic groups.

  • In general, around the world, people leave their countries in the search of better jobs and living conditions, and even some are pushed out by climate change or unfavorable political situations at home.
  • Family: As the Indian people around the world have increased in numbers, with the upcoming or the newer generations holding passports of other countries, some older Indians are choosing to leave to be with family settled overseas.
  • Fleeing: Some people who leave the nation may be fleeing the law or fear legal action for the alleged crimes.
  • A 2020 report by the Global Wealth Migration review showed that high net worth individuals around the world who renounce their citizenship acquired at birth may do so for reasons of rising crime rates or the lack of business opportunities at home.
  • Some may renounce for social reasons: Safety of women and children, lifestyle factors like climate and pollution, financial concerns including taxes, better healthcare for families and educational opportunities for children, and to escape oppressive governments.
  • Jobs: The post-Independence diasporic community has been going (out of India) for better jobs and higher education. Those who leave for jobs can be unskilled, semi-skilled, or even skilled labor.

By contrast, the pre-Independence diasporic movement was completely different, where the forced and contractual labor movement was witnessed.

  • Privileges: The majority of the Indians do it because of the privileges they will get by using the passports of other countries.

World passport index: India stands at 69th number on the passport power rank according to the world passport index.

While comparing it with other countries - the rank of Australia is 3rd, the USA is 5th, Singapore is 6th and Canada is 7th. At the top are UAE at number 1 and New Zealand at number 2.

  • Visa-free access: The higher the passport index ranking, the better access they get to travel visa-free to many countries.

Source: The Hindu


GS-II : International organisation Major International Organizations


India’s Central Bureau of Investigation has joined Interpol’s International Child Sexual Exploitation (ICSE) initiative.

International Child Sexual Exploitation database

  • The ICSE database uses video and image comparison to analyze the Child Sex Exploitation Material (CSEM) and make connections between the victims, abusers, and places.
  • The database avoids duplication of effort and saves precious time by letting investigators know whether a series of images have already been discovered or identified in another country, or whether it has similar features to other images.
  • The image and video databases are intelligence and investigative tool, which allows specialized investigators to share various data on cases of child sexual abuse.
  • It helps victim identification specialists worldwide analyze and compare child sexual abuse images.

INTERPOL’s Child Sexual Exploitation database holds more than 2.7 million images and videos that have helped identify 23,564 victims worldwide.

Significance for India

  • From 2017 to 2020 India has reported over 24 lakh instances of online child sexual abuse with 80% of victims being girls below the age of 14 years.
  • More than 60% of the unidentified victims were prepubescent, including infants and toddlers.
  • Around 65% of unidentified victims were mostly girls, but severe abuse images were more likely to have boys.
  • It will allow India to collaborate with investigators in other countries for detecting child sexual abuse online and identifying abusers, victims, and crime scenes from audio-visual clips using specialized software.

India is the 68th country to have access to this database and software.


  • Its full form is International Criminal Police Organization.
  • It is the world’s largest international police organization with 195 member countries and is headquartered in Lyon, France.
  • Each member country hosts an Interpol National Central Bureau that connects their national law enforcement to it and in India, the CBI is that nodal agency.

Source: The Indian Express


GS-II : Government policies and interventions Government policies and interventions


  • It was the third edition of the Innovation Index Report by the Niti Aayog.
  • Karnataka has topped again in the ‘Major States’ category, Manipur is leading the ‘North East and Hill States’ category, and Chandigarh is the top performer in the ‘Union Territories and City States’ category.

About Innovation index

  • The India Innovation Index is a comprehensive tool for the evaluation and development of the country’s innovation ecosystem which ranks the states and the union territories on their innovation performance to build healthy competition amongst them.
  • This index has been developed in the line with the Global Innovation Index (GII) to strengthen the innovation ecosystem of Indian state and union territories and to design policies to drive innovation across the region.
  • The number of indicators has increased from 36 (in the India Innovation Index 2020) to 66 (in the India Innovation Index 2021). The indicators are now distributed across 16 sub-pillars, which, in turn, form seven key pillars.

Indicator used

The indicator which the survey has used is the level and quality of education and the various parameter such as:

  • Internet subscriber
  • FDI inflows, business environment and safety, and legal environment
  • Investment in the research and development and several patent and trademark applications filed.
  • Number of Ph.D. students and knowledge-intensive employment.

Categories: The innovation Index is divided into three categories that are major states, union territories, and hill and northeast states.

Ranking of states

  • Karnataka stood at the first position with a score of 18.01 followed by Telangana, Haryana, and Maharashtra in the major state categories
  • Bottom state: Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Bihar scored the lowest on the index which put them at the bottom in the major state category
  • Chhattisgarh ranked last with a 10.97 score

Hill and northeast state

  • Manipur topped the ranking of hill and northeast states, followed by Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, and Arunachal Pradesh
  • Nagaland ranked last in these categories

Union territories/small state

  • Chandigarh has scored the highest on the index with a score of 27.88 followed by Delhi and the Andaman and Nicobar Island.

The merit of the innovation index

  • It helps in solving the biggest challenges of present times: bringing millions out of poverty, generating livelihood opportunities, and paving the way for an Aatmanirbhar Bharat.
  • Innovation index is critical in promoting the country’s resilience and self-reliance.
  • The index also draws some international parallels, which will add to India’s learnings and how we can be on a par with our counterparts.
  • The India Innovation Index 2021 is a testament to the Government of India’s continued commitment to transforming the country into an innovation-driven economy.
  • Innovation is a key to promote sustainable and inclusive growth in the country.


  • Need for micro-analysis of State-level policies: For a country as large as India, the state of innovation needs to be understood at mostly the regional level for effective policy formulation.

Based on the index each state needs to formulate its own policy, based on its unique resources and strengths.

  • Attracting Private Investment in Research - The Indian government is a major spender in R&D, while the investment of the private sector is very low when compared to countries like Israel where private companies account for 70% of private investment in R&D.

The focus must be on investing more in research and development. Increased spending on research and development with greater collaboration between the industry and educational institutions may help to enhance innovation capability in the country.

Source: PIB


GS-II : Government policies and interventions Government Schemes & Programmes


The Government of Delhi has said that under Mission Buniyaad, held between April and June, students of government and Municipal Corporation of Delhi schools have shown 20%-30% improvement in literacy and numeracy skills.

The government is also planning to expand the scheme.

About Mission Buniyaad

  • The mission, originally launched in 2018, had an aim to ensure that students of classes 3 to 8 studying in government or MCD schools were able to fluently read letters and solve basic mathematical problems.
  • It mainly focuses on improving the learning skills of children studying in state and municipal-run schools.
  • It was started over the summer holidays to help bridge the learning gaps caused by COVID-induced lockdowns.
  • It focuses on strengthening foundation and basics, instead of burdening the kids with syllabus and periodic assessments.
  • Under this teachers are provided with training modules that cover different components of a subject.
  • The Math concepts are broken down into physical, pictorial, and abstract forms to facilitate understanding across the different levels.
  • It also focused on drawing a road map to further strengthen the basic learning skills of students in the school run by the Directorate of Education (DOE)and the MCD schools.


  • It has played a very important role in bridging the learning gap that has widened in the past two years due to the pandemic.
  • The MCD data shows a significant percentage of students have shown improvements in their literacy skills and mathematical proficiency since being enrolled in Mission Buniyaad classes.

Source: The Hindu


GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Animals


Scientists from the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, and the Himachal Pradesh Forest department have calculated the density and the population of Asiatic black bears in two Protected Areas of Himachal Pradesh.

About black bears

  • Scientists have calculated the population density of the bears for Darangati Wildlife Sanctuary and Rupi Bhaba.
  • The asiatic black bear is also called the Himalayan bear, Tibetan bear, or moon bear. They are members of the bear family found from southern Iran to the Himalayas, Southeast Asia, and parts of eastern Asia, including Japan.
  • The Asiatic black bear is omnivorous as they are eating insects, fruit, nuts, bees and honey, small mammals, and birds as well as carrion.
  • The Asiatic black bears live predominantly in forested areas, especially in hills and mountainous areas.

Feature: It has a glossy black coat with a whitish mark shaped like a crescent moon on the chest.

An adult male weighs 100–200 kg and a female about half as much as a male bear.


  • Asiatic black bears are found over a wide area of southern Asia.
  • They occur along the mountains from Afghanistan, through Pakistan and northern India, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan, into Burma and northeastern China.
  • They are also found in southeastern Russia, Taiwan, and the Japanese islands of Honshu and Shikoku.
  • The bears are found in 83 protected areas of India spread across five states and 2 Union Territories in the Himalayas.
  • It is one of the large carnivore species having negative interactions with humans in the Indian Himalayas.

IUCN red list: It has been categorized as Vulnerable under the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species and is also listed under Appendix I of CITES and Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

Methods used to determine the population status of Asiatic black bears in India have been limited to questionnaires, sign surveys, and genetic sampling using hair samples.

Source: Down To Earth

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