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28 Mar, 2021

17 Min Read

Particle physics- Large Hadron Collider experiment

GS-III : S&T Nano Technology

Particle physics- Large Hadron Collider experiment


  • On March 23, a wave of excitement propagated through the particle physics community when researchers from the LHCb experiment at CERN, situated in the Franco-Swiss border, announced the results of their latest analysis of data.

Verge of discovery

  • While the findings were not sufficiently strong to be counted as a discovery, CERN scientists were excited enough to reveal that if the anomaly they had detected was confirmed, “It would require a new physical process, such as the existence of new fundamental particles or interactions.”

What was this excitement all about? It is necessary to delve into the world of elementary particles to understand this.

  • Elementary particles: Broadly speaking, elementary particles are classified into the particles called baryons – which include:
    • protons,
    • neutrons and
    • their antiparticles the antiprotons etc.
  • Middle-class particles: The “middle mass” particles, roughly speaking, are called the mesons and they include members such as the K and B particles.
  • Leptons: Leptons include:
    • electron and
    • its cousins the muon and tau particles and
    • the anti-particles.
  • Quarks and gluons: At a still smaller scale, there are tiny particles called quarks and gluons.
    • There are six flavours of quarks: up, down, truth, beauty, charm and strange.
    • They too have antiquarks associated with them.

Note: While the baryons are made up of combinations of three quarks, the mesons contain two quarks, more accurately a quark and antiquark pair, and the leptons are truly fundamental and are thought to be indivisible.

Do you know?

  • Until now it is believed that the electron, muon and tauon and their antiparticles, though they differ in mass, behave similarly in particle interactions.

Lepton universality principle.

  • The muons are not essentially different from the electrons as per the Standard Model, the presently accepted theoretical model of all elementary particle interactions.
  • This is called the lepton universality principle.

Source: TH

Finance Minister launched Central Scrutiny Centre and IEPFA App

GS-III : S&T Artificial Intelligence

Finance Minister launched Central Scrutiny Centre and IEPFA App

The Finance Minister virtually launched the Central Scrutiny Centre(CSC). She also launched the mobile app for the Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority(IEPFA).

About Central Scrutiny Centre:

  • Central Scrutiny Centre is an initiative of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.
  • It aims to scrutinize the forms filled by companies under straight-through processes.
  • The objective is to ensure that data quality is free from flaws.

Features of the Central Scrutiny Centre:

  • CSC will primarily do the following things,
  • It will Scrutinize the filings made by users under straight-through processes
  • The CSC will identify data quality issues and irregularities.
  • Further, It will communicate the data quality issues to the concerned Registrar of Companies. Then corrective steps can be taken to restore the authenticity and correctness of data.

About the Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority App:

  • It is a mobile app. It aims to achieve the goal of financial literacy, spreading awareness and education among investors.


  • The IEPFA App will have the facility of tracking the status and progress of the IEPF claim and refund process.
  • The app will also provide a mechanism for investors and common citizens to report on suspected fraudulent schemes.

Investor Education and Protection Fund (IEPF):

  • IEPF has been established under the Companies Act,1956 by the Companies (Amendment) Act,1999.
  • IEP Fund has been established for the promotion of investor awareness and protection of the interests of investors.
  • If the amounts such as dividends, application money, matured deposits, etc. remained unpaid or unclaimed for a period of 7 years, then they will be transferred to the IEPF.
  • The amounts credited to IEPF are maintained under the consolidated fund of India (Article 266 of the Constitution).

The utilisation of Fund:

  • The fund is utilized for promoting investor awareness and the protection of investor interests.
  • Based on the order of the court, the Fund can also be utilized for distribution of any disgorged amount among eligible applicants who suffered losses due to wrong actions by any person.

IEPF Authority:

  • IEPF has been set up under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs as a statutory body under the Companies Act 2013.
  • It aims to administer the Investor Education and Protection Fund.
  • Secretary Ministry of Corporate Affairs is the Chairperson of the authority.

Source: TH

International Day of Forests

GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment International Envt Bodies

International Day of Forests

The United Nations observed March 21 as the International Day of Forests.

About International Day of Forests:

  • The United Nations General Assembly proclaimed March 21 as the International Day of Forests (IDF) in 2012.
  • The day celebrates and raises awareness about the importance of all types of forests.
  • The day is celebrated by the United Nations Forum on Forests and the Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO).
  • The celebrations are done in collaboration with governments, Collaborative Partnership on Forests(CPF), and other relevant organisations in the field.

On this day, the UN encourages the countries to undertake local, national, and international activities for forests and trees. For example tree-planting campaigns.

The theme for 2021: “Forest restoration: a path to recovery and well-being”.

Forest cover in India

  • Since Independence, one-fifth of India’s land has consistently been under forests. This is significant as the population increased more than three times at the same time.
  • According to the biennial State of Forest Report,2019, India’s forest cover increased by 3,976 Sq. km or 0.56% since 2017.
  • In 2017, the tree and forest cover together made up 24.39%. At present, it is raised to 25.56% of India’s area.
  • The top three states showing an increase in forest cover are Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala.
  • However, the sharpest decline in forest cover was seen in the northeastern states of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, and Mizoram.

About United Nations Forum on Forests:

  • Hosted by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC).
  • To promote the management, conservation, and sustainable development of all types of forests. Further, It aims to strengthen long-term political commitment to this end.
  • The Forum has universal membership and is composed of all Member States of the United Nations and specialized agencies.
  • Headquarters: New York, United States.

About Collaborative Partnership on Forests(CPF):

  • It is an informal, voluntary arrangement among 15 international organizations and secretariats. These organizations run substantial programs on forests.
  • The mission of the CPF is to help enhance the contribution of all types of forests and trees outside forests. It aims to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and other internationally agreed development goals.

Source: IE

National Commission for Allied and Healthcare Professions Bill, 2021

GS-II : Government policies and interventions Laws

National Commission for Allied and Healthcare Professions Bill, 2021

Lok Sabha has passed the National Commission for Allied and Healthcare Professions Bill, 2021.

The bill aims at setting up a National Commission for Allied and healthcare Professions to standardize and regulate the education and practice of allied and healthcare professionals. It will also facilitate the maintenance and regulation of standards of education and services by healthcare professionals.

What will be the functions of the National Commission?

  • The National Commission for Allied and Healthcare Professions will frame the standards for the education and practice of the professionals.
  • It will create and maintain an online Central register of all the registered professionals.
  • The Commission will provide uniform education standards for allied and healthcare professionals.
  • It will also provide for a uniform entrance and exit examination.

Who will be able to practice as an allied and healthcare professional?

  • Only those who are enrolled in a National Register or the State Register as a healthcare professional or a qualified practitioner will be allowed to practice as an allied and healthcare professional.
  • The Allied and Healthcare professions mentioned under the latest bill include the professionals working in trauma and burn care, life sciences, physiotherapists, surgical and anaesthesia-related technology, and nutrition science.

How the bill will benefit healthcare professionals?

  • The bill will increase the employment opportunities for the healthcare and allied professionals and will also provide dignity to their valuable works.
  • There is an extreme demand for qualified healthcare professionals and that the legislation will provide the required impetus in providing affordable healthcare to the people.

Source: TH

Earth Hour Day- Celebrated on March 27

GS-II : International organisation Major International Organizations

Earth Hour Day- Celebrated on March 27

Earth Hour Day was observed all over the world on March 27, 2021.

About Earth Hour

  • Earth Hour is a global movement for environmental conservation. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) started it in 2007.
  • It is an annual event, that takes place on the last Saturday of March.
  • Millions of people in over 180 countries and territories participate in it by turning off their lights.
  • It aims to call attention to global warming, loss of biodiversity, and climate change.
  • During Earth Hour, people turn off their lights for an hour as a sign of global solidarity.
  • This hour symbolises the need to take action on the pressing issue of global climate change. Further, it promotes awareness about environmental issues on a public platform.
  • The theme for 2021: “Climate Change to Save Earth

About World Wildlife Fund for Nature(WWF):

  • World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961.
  • It is the world’s largest conservation organization.
  • It aims to stop the degradation of the planet’s natural environment. It also aims to build a future where humans live in harmony with nature.
  • Headquarters: Gland, Switzerland.

Source: TH

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