General Awareness - Quick Facts General Science And S&T
Red Sanders Red sanders or red sandalwood, is a species endemic to the southern Eastern Ghats mountain range of South India. It is a rare kind of sandalwood that is in high demand in international market and costs around Rs.1,500 to Rs.2,000 a kg. The major markets for the wood are China, Japan, the Middle East, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Nepal. This tree is valued for the rich red color of its wood. The wood is not aromatic. The tree is not to be confused with the aromatic Sant
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan recently unveiled an ambitious 10-year space program that includes missions to the moon, developing internationally viable satellite systems, and sending Turkish astronauts into space. President Erdogan also informed that Turkey plans on establishing its first contact with the moon in 2023 when the nation will mark the centennial of the founding of the Turkish Republic. However, the critics have questioned the Turkish government’s decision
Russia is set to put into orbit around 40 satellites from over a dozen different countries all over the world using the Soyuz-2 carrier rocket in March 2021. Soyuz-2.1, a carrier rocket with the Fregat booster will blast off with the South Korean CAS500-1 (Compact Advanced Satellite 500) space vehicle from the Baikonur space centre in March, 2021.
SpaceX recently announced on that it will be launching four private individuals on a Crew Dragon Capsule into orbit around Earth. The mission is dubbed ‘the world’s first all-civilian mission’. The mission known as Inspiration4 aims at raising the support for Children’s Research Hospital. On the conclusion of Inspiration4 mission, Dragon, the spacecraft will be re-entering the Earth’s atmosphere for soft water landing off the coast of Florida.
The Hubble Space Telescope of National Aeronautics and Space Administration- NASA has captured the stunning image of ‘Lost Galaxy’ in the Virgo constellation. Like our own ‘Milky Way’, the ‘Lost Galaxy’ is a barred spiral galaxy. It is a vast swirl of stars with a distinct bar structure at its centre. The yellowish glow of the lost galaxy points to its oldest and coldest retinue of stars.
SpaceX, an aerospace company, has beaten the record of the Indian Space Research Organisation- ISRO where it deployed 104 satellites in February 2017 in a single launch.The reusable rocket launched 143 satellites to space which are part of the SmallSat Rideshare program of SpaceX from Florida’s Cape Canaveral Space Force Station.
Magnetic hyperthermia-mediated cancer therapy (MHCT) It is a non-invasive cancer treatment. The technique: Delivery and localisation of magnetic materials within the targeted tumour site followed by subsequent application of an alternating magnetic field (AMF), thereby generating heat at the tumour site. It can efficiently act against deep-seated inaccessible solid tumours like glioblastoma (aggressive type of cancer that can occur in the brain or spinal cord)
Recently, scientists from Agharkar Research Institute (ARI), Pune have found the first synthetic route for producing flavonoids molecules related to the treatment of tuberculosis and chikungunya. Key takeaways It is for the first time that the flavonoid molecules such as rugosa flavonoids, podocare flavone and isoflavone have been synthesised in a lab. These three molecules have so far been isolated from plants only. These are part of the polyphenol class of phytonutrients
What is Abscisic Acid? Glands are organs secrete hormones at different times to stimulate body processes such as growth, development, and the breaking down of sugars. Abscisic acid is a plant hormone involved in many developmental plant processes, such as dormancy and environmental stress response. Function of Abscisic Acid Plants have openings on the bottom side of their leaves, known as stomata. Stomata take in carbon dioxide and regulate water content. Abscisi
Swadeshi Microprocessor Challenge launched Launched by: Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) Aim: To provide further impetus to the strong ecosystem of Start-up, innovation and research in the country. To realize the ambition of self-reliance. Indigenously developed microprocessors SHAKTI and VEGA have also been rolled out under the Microprocessor Development Programme. Microprocessor Development Programme Aim: Meeting Ind
3 scientists share Prize in Physiology or Medicine: Americans Harvey J Alter and Charles M Rice, and British scientist Michael Houghton have been awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology for the discovery of the hepatitis C virus. Their Contributions: The trio’s work helped explain a major source of blood-borne hepatitis that couldn’t be explained by the hepatitis A and B viruses. Their discovery have essentially eliminated post-transfusion hepatitis in
Feluda is the acronym for FNCAS9 Editor Linked Uniform Detection Assay. It is an accurate and low-cost paper-based test strip to detect Covid-19 and can deliver a result in 45 minutes. Developed by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Tata Group. How it works? It uses indigenously developed CRISPR gene-editing technology to identify and target the genetic material of SARS-CoV2, the virus that causes Covid-19. Significance: According
Agri-voltaic system of 105 KW capacity was developed by ICAR-Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur. This technology can increase the income of farmers by generation of electricity and growing of cash crops simultaneously on the same piece of land. Under component-I of KUSUM scheme, there is a provision for installation of agri-voltaic system in farmers’ fields with a capacity ranging from 500 KW to 2 MW. KUSUM Scheme: Launched by Ministry of New and Rene
What is a Covid-19 vaccine passport? A vaccination pass or passport is documentation proving that the individual has been vaccinated against Covid-19. As more people are inoculated, there will likely be aspects of public life in which only people who have been vaccinated are allowed to participate. In order to travel internationally, government and health authorities will need to know if you have been vaccinated or have tested negative for the virus.
SDMC is seeking permission to dump material in 3 former mining pits in the sanctuary and one outside it. Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary It is located on the Southern Ridge of Aravalli Hills, one of the oldest mountain systems of the world. It is the part of the Northern Aravalli leopard wildlife corridor. It is the green lung & carbon sink for New Delhi. It provides a potential shelterbelt for arresting the shifting of sandunes & protection of desert storms. As it is lo
In a year, a patch of land in Mumbai’s eastern suburbs has become a testament to create the “urban forests” through the Miyawaki technique. Miyawaki is an afforestation technique to create urban forests based on the work of Japanese botanist Akira Miyawaki in the 1980s. Miyawaki forests are tiny forests grown on small plots of land in 2 to 3 years and are self-sustaining, like how a forest is. Three layers of greens - shrubs and undergrowth, medium-height trees an
Researchers of the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Hyderabad are studying impediments in incorporating biofuels into the fuel sector in India. Significance of Biofuels: Biofuels in India are of strategic importance as it augers well with the ongoing initiatives of the Government such as Make in India, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Skill Development and offers great opportunity to integrate with the ambitious targets of doubling of Farmers Income, Import Reduction, Employment Generation,
CHANG’E-5 PROBE: Chinese spacecraft carrying rocks and soil from the moon has begun its journey back to Earth, putting China on course to become the first country to successfully retrieve lunar samples since the 1970s. About the Chang'e-5 probe: The probe is named after the mythical Chinese moon goddess. The rocket is comprised of four parts: an orbiter, a returner, an ascender and a lander. The objective of the mission is to bring back lunar rocks, the first attempt
QUANTUM SUPREMACY: What is Quantum Supremacy? It describes the point where quantum computers can do things that classical computers cannot. Superposition and entanglement are what give quantum computers the ability to process so much more information so much faster. Differences between a standard computer and a quantum computer: A classical computer performs calculations using bits that is 0 (representing off )and 1 (representing on). It uses transistors to
LAB-GROWN MEAT: CLEARED IN SINGAPORE, EMERGING ALTERNATIVE WORLDWIDE: The Singapore Food Agency (SFA) approved this week the sale of a lab-grown meat product. How is lab-grown or cultured meat different from plant-based meat? The latter is made from plant sources such as soy or pea protein, while cultured meat is grown directly from cells in a laboratory. Objective: to offer alternatives to traditional meat products that could feed a lot more people, reduce the
LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING SURVEY (LIDAR) TECHNIQUE: National High Speed Rail Corporation Limited will be adopting Light Detection and Ranging Survey (LiDAR) technique using Laser enabled equipment mounted on a Helicopter for conducting ground survey for the preparation of Detailed Project Report for the proposed Delhi-Varanasi HSR corridor. What is LiDAR? It is a remote sensing method that uses light in the form of a pulsed laser to measure ranges (variable distances) to the Ear
ETHEREUM 2.0 The Ethereum is a crypto currency. Recently, it was launched in a faster, cheaper and more environmentally friendly platform, as the upgraded version called ‘Ethereum 2.0’. What is Ethereum? Ethereum is a decentralised and open source blockchain platform, which is a growing list of cryptographic blocks. It is the world’s second-largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization, only after bitcoin. It is also the world’s most actively us
HAYABUSA2 SPACECRAFT OF JAPAN: The Hayabusa2 spacecraft of Japan is nearing the earth after a yearlong journey from asteroid Ryugu. The spacecraft is to reach the earth in Southern Australia on carrying precious samples from the asteroid . The entire operation is being held by JAXA, Japanese Aerospace exploration agency. Hayabusa2 This mission follows Hayabusa mission that returned asteroid samples of asteroid Ryugu for a year and half. The mission is expected to p
SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY PARKS OF INDIA (STPI): The Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) is investing up to ?400 crore in setting up office and connectivity infrastructure across several cities, offering small technology firms a ‘plug-and-play’ facility. About Software Technology Parks of India (STPI): It is an autonomous society under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). Established in 1991 The STPI’s Governing Council’s
DESALINATION PLANTS Uddhav Thackeray cleared Mumbai’s first desalination plant. What is Swiss Challenge method? The Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) is planning to take the ‘Swiss Challenge Method’ for the project. Under this, a project can be awarded to a private player on an unsolicited proposal. The private firm which has first submitted a proposal can be approached directly for negotiations and if they do not agree, then other bidders are cal
KALVARI CLASS OF SUBMARINES Indian Navy’s fifth Kalvari-class Diesel Electric attack submarine INS Vagir was launched recently at Mazgaon Dock in Mumbai. The other vessels in the class are INS Kalvari, INS Khanderi, INS Karanj, INS Vela and INS Vagsheer. About Kalvari Class of Submarines This class of submarines have Diesel Electric transmission systems and these are primarily attack submarines designed to target and sink adversary naval vessels. They ca
ISRO’S SHUKRAYAAN: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has short-listed 20 space-based experiment proposals for its proposed Venus orbiter mission 'Shukrayaan'. About Shukrayaan: It is a mission to study Venus for more than four years. Scientific objectives: Investigation of the surface processes and shallow subsurface stratigraphy; and solar wind interaction with Venusian Ionosphere, and studying the structure, composition and dynamics of the atmospher
SPACEX-NASA’S CREW-1 MISSION NASA has certified SpaceX’s Crew Dragon capsule and the Falcon 9 rocket, making it the first spacecraft certification provided by the space agency. What is the Crew-1 mission? The mission is part of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program, whose objective is to make access to space easier in terms of its cost, so that cargo and crew can be easily transported to and from the ISS, enabling greater scientific research. About the S
THIRTY METER TELESCOPE PROJECT. 2020 Physics Nobel Laureate Prof. Andrea Ghez had worked closely with Indian astronomers on the design of back-end instruments of Thirty Meter Telescope Project. About TMT: It is an astronomical observatory with an extremely large telescope (ELT). It is an international project being funded by scientific organisations of Canada, China, India, Japan and USA. Planned location is Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii in the US stat
Madden Julian Oscillation It is an eastward moving cyclic weather along the tropics. It influences rainfall, sea surface temperature, winds. Phases of Madden Julian Oscillation It consists of two phases. Enhanced Rainfall Phase and Suppressed Rainfall Phase. In enhanced Rainfall Phase: winds at the surface of the earth converge to push the air upwards throughout the atmosphere. This rising air increases condensation and rainfall. In Suppressed Rainfall Phase: The winds at t
The Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution launches the ‘Mera Ration’ mobile app. About Mera Ration Mobile app: Mera Ration Mobile app will facilitate the ‘One Nation-One Ration Card’ system. It aims to help those ration cardholders who migrated to new areas for livelihoods. Its developed by National Informatics Center(NIC). Features of the app: The application allows beneficiaries to Find out the nearest fair pri
According to Researchers from Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad the Blueberries in India and “Martian Blueberries” share similar characteristics. What are Martian Blueberries? Martian blueberries are small spherical haematites. The Mars rover “Opportunity” discovered them in 2004 on the planet Mars. Composition of Martian blueberries: Martian Blueberries are made of iron oxide compounds called haematites. These haematites are known
It is an Indo-Japanese project that was initiated during 2019 to reconstruct the past-climate. In 2019 India-Japan under the aegis of National Center for Polar and Ocean Research and National Institute of Polar Research signed an MoU to share and carry out R & D in Antarctica Objective of SONIC To understand the ice sheet variability at the Schirmacher Oasis to examine East Antarctic Ice Sheet sensitivity and its response to glacial-interglacial cycles To assess the v
National Institute of Oceanography(NIO) has launched its first-of-its-kind project of Genome Mapping in the Indian Ocean. About the Genome Mapping in the Indian Ocean Project: Aim of the Project: To reveal the internal working of the body of the ocean at a cellular level. To understand the biochemistry and the response of the ocean to climate change, nutrient stress and increasing pollution. How will the Project get conducted? The NIO research team onboard its research v
ISRO and NASA signed a partnership in 2014, to collaborate on and launch NISAR (NASA-ISRO SAR) by 2022. About NISAR: NASA is providing L-band SAR, a high-rate communication subsystem for science data, etc., ISRO is providing the S-band radar, and launch services. NISAR is a Synthetic Aperture Radar that can produce extremely high-resolution images for a joint earth observation satellite mission. It will be the first satellite mission to use 2 radar frequencies (L-band an
Over 100 hectares of the total expanse of 1,500 hectares of the last remaining grasslands in the Wenlock Downs of Nilgiris is being slowly eroded by Todas and Kotas. This is because many of the Todas and Kotas have leased the “forest lands” to non-tribals in exchange for a small fee. There is also the question of the Forest Rights Act in this area, as to whether it would supersede the rights acknowledged under the Toda patta lands, or whether it offers additional protection.
Candida Auris has been identified for the first time in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. About Candida Auris: Candida Auris or C.auris is a multidrug-resistant fungus. Origin of Candida Auris: Candida Auris was first identified in 2009 in a patient in Japan. The fungus is mostly found in tropical marshes and marine environments, outside hospital environments. Symptoms of C.Auris: C.auris survives on the skin before entering the body through wounds.
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. has entered into a joint venture with Israel-based battery technology start-up Phinergy to develop aluminium-air technology based battery systems. These batteries utilise oxygen in the air which reacts with an aluminium hydroxide solution to oxidise the aluminium and produce electricity. These batteries are said to be a lower cost and more energy-dense alternative to lithium-ion batteries, which are currently in use in India. These batteries can be used for
Maharashtra Anti-Terrorism Squad (ATS) relied on a diatom tests for leads in the alleged murder case of Mansukh Hiran. About Diatom Test It helps in diagnosing the death caused by drowning. It tests diatoms in the body being tested. Diatoms are photosynthesizing algae found in aquatic environment including fresh and marine waters, soils, etc., (almost anywhere moist). If the person is alive when he enters the water, the diatoms will enter the lungs when the person inhales water whi
India imports the majority of helium for its domestic needs but now the U.S appears to cut off exports of helium from 2021. Hence, the Indian industry stands to lose out heavily. About Helium: Helium is a chemical element with the symbol He and atomic number 2. It is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. Helium is the second lightest and second most abundant el
House Sparrow population was on the decline in cities, for decades. But now the citizen-led movements across various states are facilitating the increase of House Sparrow population. About House Sparrow: House Sparrow(Passer domesticus) is a bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found in most parts of the world. Characteristics of House Sparrow: The male and female House Sparrow are easily distinguishable not in size but in colouration. The male is dark brown with a black bi
Asteroid 2001 FO32 Asteroid 2001 FO32 is the largest asteroid passed by Earth in 2021. It was discovered 20 years ago by Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) program in Socorro, New Mexico in 2001. When it is at its closest to Earth, it is at a distance of 2 million km (Equal to 5¼ times the distance between Earth & moon). So, it has been designated as a “potentially hazardous asteroid”. The reason for the asteroid’s close approach is its hi
The Prime Minister through a tweet asked everyone to visit a tulip garden in Jammu and Kashmir. The garden is located at the foothills of the Zabarwan range. About the Tulip Garden: The tulip garden is located at the foothills of the Zabarwan range. It is Asia’s largest tulip garden, spreading over an area of about 30 hectares. This garden is home to more than 64 varieties of tulips in bloom. It was started in 2007 to boost floriculture and tourism in Kashmir Valley. About
The IUCN has declared African Forest elephants as ‘critically endangered’ and Savanna (or bush) elephants as ‘endangered’. Previously IUCN listed both African elephants as “vulnerable”. But now it has opted to list them separately. It is after genetic evidence proved that both are different species. About African Elephants African elephants are the largest land animals on Earth. They are slightly larger than Asian E
Two new species of red seaweed - Hypnea indica and Hypnea bullata - have been discovered by marine biologists from Central University of Punjab (The genus Hypnea includes red seaweeds.) Hypnea indica - Discovered from Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu, and Somnath Pathan and Sivrajpur in Gujarat. Hypnea bullata - Discovered from Kanyakumari and Diu island of Daman and Diu. Another species, Hypnea nidifica, has been found for the first time in Indian coasts. The genus Hypnea consists of
A group of lepidopterists discovers a new species of butterfly. It was named as “Nacaduba Sinhala Ramaswamii Sadasivan”. Note: A lepidopterist is a person who specializes in studying butterflies and moths. About the New Species: It is a Line Blue Butterfly Species that belongs to the Nacaduba genus group. Line Blues are small butterflies belonging to the subfamily Lycaenidae. Their distribution ranges from India
It is a new small freshwater fish species discovered near Amboli in Sawantwadi tehsil of Sindhudurg district. It is a rare sub-species of Schistura, a freshwater loach. Named after the Hiranyakeshi River near Amboli village, this fish is a colourful fish that lives in water and streams in an abundance of oxygen. It was important to conserve this species as it might face extinction due to fishing activities. Jammu and Kashmir Lakes Srinagar’s Dal Lake along with five ot
The Union Minister for Science and Technology will launch a mission called `Aahaar Kranti’. About Aahaar Kranti Mission: Vijnana Bharati (Vibha) and the Global Indian Scientists’ and Technocrats’ Forum (GIST) will launch Aahaar Kranti Mission. The mission will aim to spread the message of the need for a nutritionally balanced diet. It will highlight the importance of being accessible to all local fruits and vegetables. Key Features of the Mission: The m
Researchers at a Sweden University released a new finding related to the melting of the Thwaites Glacier. About Thwaites Glacier: Thwaites Glacier is a 120 km wide, fast-moving glacier located in Antarctica. Because of its size (1.9 lakh square km), it contains enough water to raise the world sea level by more than half a meter. It’s melting already contributes 4% to global sea-level rise each year. It is estimated that it would collapse into the sea in 200-900 years. S
According to an analysis of the Indus and Ganges River dolphins, it was found they are not one but two separate different species. What is the current classification? Currently, Indus and Ganges River dolphins are classified as two subspecies under South Asian river dolphins(Platanista gangetica). What has the analysis revealed? The researchers examined the DNA samples of the Indus and Gangetic River Dolphins. They found out that the Indus and Ganges river dolphins have cle
The Union Minister inaugurated The Hydrogen Economy – New Delhi Dialogue 2021. About Hydrogen Economy – New Delhi Dialogue 2021: New Delhi Dialogue 2021 is organized by The Energy Forum(TEF), an independent think tank in India in collaboration with the Federation of Indian Petroleum Industry(FIPI). FIPI is under the patronage of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. The dialogue aims to discuss emerging hydrogen ecosystems and exploring opportunities for collaborat
Scientists from the Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences (CeNS), Bangalore have developed Electronic Nose to detect Hydrogen Sulphide from swamps and sewers. CeNS is an autonomous institute of the Department of Science & Technology About Hydrogen Sulphide: Hydrogen Sulphide is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. It is a colourless chalcogen hydride gas. It is with the characteristic foul odour of rotten eggs. (Chacogen – chalcogens are the chemical
Researchers from the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) have discovered India’s first disc footed bat near the Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary in Meghalaya. About Disc Footed Bat: This bat (Eudiscopus denticulus) is a bat species that is very different. It has a flat skull, prominent disk-like pads in the thumb, and bright orange colouration. This bat rests inside bamboo internodes. Their sticky disks and flattened skull help them in this. So far, this species only thrive i
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has launched the SpO2 (Blood Oxygen Saturation) supplemental Oxygen Delivery System which will be useful for soldiers in extreme high-altitude areas. About DRDO’s Supplemental Oxygen Delivery System: The system delivers supplemental oxygen based on the SpO2 (Blood Oxygen Saturation) levels. Thus, it prevents the person from going into a state of Hypoxia. Hypoxia is a state in which the amount of oxygen reaching the tissu
DRDO has developed an Advanced Chaff Technology to safeguard the naval ships against enemy missile attack. The successful development of Advanced Chaff Technology by DLJ is another step towards Atmanirbhar Bharat. Chaff is a passive expendable electronic countermeasure technology used worldwide to protect naval ships from enemy’s radar and Radio Frequency (RF) missile seekers. The importance of this development is that very less quantity of chaff material de
Indian astronomers from Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences have tracked a rare supernova explosion and traced it to one of the hottest kind of stars called Wolf–Rayet stars or WR stars. The rare Wolf–Rayet stars are highly luminous objects a thousand times that of the Sun. They strip their outer hydrogen envelope which is associated with the fusion of Helium and other elements in the massive core. Supernova A supernova
India is fast emerging a leader in high power computing with the National Super Computing Mission (NSM) boosting it to meet the increasing computational demands of academia, researchers, MSMEs, and startups in areas like oil exploration, flood prediction as well as genomics and drug discovery. Completion in of Phase II of NSM in September 2021 will take the country’s computing power to 16 Petaflops (PF). Infrastructure planned in NSM Phase I has already been installed and much of P
Sugarcane Cultivation in India Sugarcane belongs to Poaceae family of true grasses. It is a tropical and perennial grass which attains a length of 10 to 20 feet. A single plant of sugarcane has ‘many stems’ in a tuft. Since ancient times, Sugar has been produced in the local units in India using traditional Khandsari process. Modern Sugar making was introduced in India probably by Dutch. The first Sugar Mill was started in India in Bihar in 1903; followed by anoth
Non-uniformity of Himalayas foresees significantly large earthquake events Scientists have found that the Himalayas are not uniform and assume different physical and mechanical properties in different directions — a property present in crystals that is called ‘anisotropy’. This could result in significantly large earthquake events in the Himalayas. The north-west region of India, an area covering Garhwal and Himachal Pradesh, has been hit by four destructive moderate
Achieving Paris Agreement- the key to save endemic species: Study According to a study published in the journal Biological Conservation, 90% of the endemic species will face extinction unless the goals of the Paris Agreement are met. For example, Kolar Leaf Nose Bat is endemic to India and endemic to only one cave in Hanumanahalli village in Kolar district, Karnataka Endemic species are those plants and animals that exist only in one geographical region. Species can be endemic
Tech developed for Improved Lithium-ion Battery Performance Researchers from IIT Guwahati have developed a technique to improve the performance of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, which power most of the portable devices used today. New Technology The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was jointly awarded to Stanley Whittingham, John Goodenough and Akira Yoshino for work that led to the development of lithium-ion batteries. These batteries are used in mos
Danube Sturgeon- Illegal Selling According to a report released by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), illegal sale of Danube Sturgeon, one of the most endangered species in the world, is rampant in the lower Danube (River) region, especially in Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine. Danube is the second longest river in Europe after the Volga. It rises in the Black Forest mountains of western Germany and flows for some 2,850 km to its mouth on the&n
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