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05 Jul, 2022

19 Min Read

Rights of the transgender persons in India

GS-II : Governance Rights based issues

Rights of the transgender persons in India

National legal services authority (NALSA) VS Union of India famously known as the NALSA case has a huge implication on the right of transgenders and set forward a very progressive landmark judgment by the Supreme Court Of India.

Judgment of the Supreme Court in the NALSA Case

  • Legal recognition

The court has directed the Center and the State Government to recognize the transgender as the third gender, the court also clarified that the fundamental rights are equally available to the third gender as they are available to males and females in the country.

  • Constitutional Rights

The apex court briefed that non-recognition of their gender identity violates Articles 14, 15, 16, 19, and 21 of the Constitution of India.

  • Self-Identification

It is the right of all the person to self-identify their gender and no third-gender person should be subjected to any medical examination or biological test which could lead to harm to their privacy as said by the court.

  • The distinction between biological sex and psychological sex

The Supreme Court made a very progressive judgment by rejecting gender identification based on biological sex and gave full importance and acceptance to identification based on psychological sex.

  • Socio-economic rights

Transgenders are also entitled to reservation in educational institutions and public employment as they are considered socially and educationally backward classes.

  • Stigma and public awareness

It is the responsibility of the Central and the State government to take steps to create public awareness to incorporate transgenders as part of society equally dignified and respected as other genders and end their untouchable treatment of them.

The problem such as fear, shame, social pressure, depression, and suicidal tendencies has to be removed by the government.

  • Ensuring Basic amenities

The apex court also directed the Centre and State Governments to operate separate HIV Zero-Surveillance Centres, separate public toilets, and appropriate medical care in hospitals for transgenders.

Significance of the judgment

  • It is the first case to legally recognize non-binary gender identity and also uphold the fundamental right of transgender people.
  • Due to a lack of recognition of their gender identity, they were not given access to education, health care, and even public places and face huge discrimination so this judgment will provide them all the basic right as well as a dignified life.
  • The broader definition of transgender was also given, and the person whose gender identity, gender expression, or behaviour did not conform to their biological sex will also be included in the third gender.
  • This judgment also recognizes the Yogyakarta principles which is a document about human rights protections to gender identity, sexual orientation, and the LGBTQ community.
  • The judgment aligns with the United Nation’s Article 6 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,1948 which provides protection and promotion of sexual minorities, including transgender persons.???????

Challenges faced by Third Gender

  • They face huge discrimination in an educational institute, in employment, and within their families which affects their overall wellbeing.
  • They are forced to identify with a gender with which they are not associated despite the government passing the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act 2019, which allows the community to right to choose their gender identity.
  • Social stigma is a major challenge as the majority of people still believe that they are involved in sexual activity and call them by different names, which is not acceptable.
  • The community has less representation in formal employment activity and faces severe discrimination at the workplace because of the associated social stigma.
  • They have poor access to health services and thus makes them vulnerable to many diseases like AIDS.

Initiatives by the Government for the transgender people

  • Transgender person (Protection of Rights) Act 2019

It aims to end discrimination against transgender people in accessing employment, education, and health care.

  • National Council for Transgender

This body has been constituted to advise the Central Government on the formulation and evaluation of policies, programs, projects, and any legislation for the betterment of transgender people.

  • Reservation for the Transgender Community

The Central Government is planning to bring reservations for the community under the OBC category in jobs.

  • Garima scheme

It aims to provide shelter to transgender persons with basic amenities like shelter, food, and medical care.

The judgment had given them a dignified life but it is the responsibility of the government to smoothly and strictly implement the law for the growth of transgender people and create awareness to change the perspective of society towards them.

Source: The Indian Express

China’s New High-Tech Aircraft Carrier: Fujian

GS-III : S&T Defense system

China’s New High-Tech Aircraft Carrier: Fujian

  • China demonstrated its first indigenous aircraft carrier, the new-generation Fujian.
  • China now has the second-largest fleet of aircraft carriers after the U.S.

About Fujian

  • Fujian has been named after China’s eastern coastal province which lies across from Taiwan.
  • Fujian joins two other aircraft carriers currently operated by China — Shandong which is Type 001, commissioned in the year 2019, and the Liaoning, Type 002, bought second-hand from Ukraine in 1998.
  • Fujian, Type 003 carrier is more technologically advanced than its predecessors Shandong and Liaoning.


  • The Fujian’s displacement is around 80,000 tons which is much more than the existing Chinese aircraft carriers and, comparable to U.S. Navy aircraft carriers.
  • The Fujian has been fitted with the latest launch technology, Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) which has been first developed by the U.S. Navy.
  • It also has a straight flat-top flight deck for the take-offs and landings.

How this aircraft is significant for China?

  • China put claim over almost all of the South China Sea and has heavily deployed naval assets as a show of power in the Strait that separates the Chinese mainland from Taiwan
  • With the Fujian, China is likely to get more power to operate in the South China Sea and Taiwan Straits.
  • The Indian Navy has a significant presence in the Indian Ocean but the capabilities of the Fujian provide China with a leeway to head to India’s backyard, where it is increasing its presence.
  • China has already taken the Hambantota port in Sri Lanka as a debt swap and is modernizing Pakistan’s Gwadar port on the Arabian Sea and also has expanded its naval base in the strategically important Horn of Africa nation of Djibouti, increasing military capabilities like Fujian will further add might to its expansionist policy.

Though China has expanded its military strength, the U.S. remains far ahead. At present, the U.S. is the world’s largest leader in aircraft carriers, with 11 nuclear-powered vessels followed by China, Britain, and Italy.

Status of Aircraft Carrier in India

  • INS Vikramaditya

INS Vikramaditya is the Indian Navy’s largest aircraft carrier and warship converted from the Russian Navy’s decommissioned Admiral Gorshkov/Baku.

  • It is a modified Kiev-class aircraft carrier that was commissioned into service in November 2013.
  • It works on a Short Take-Off But Arrested Recovery, or STOBAR mechanism with an angular ski-jump.

STOBAR is a system that is used for the launch and recovery of aircraft from the deck of an aircraft carrier, combining elements of "short take-off and vertical landing" with "catapult-assisted take-off but arrested recovery".

  • INS Vikrant:

India’s second aircraft carrier is INS Vikrant which is set to be commissioned later this year, it will use the CATOBAR system to launch aircraft.

Its construction will propel India into a select group of countries having capabilities to build state-of-the-art aircraft carriers.

Operational Modalities: According to the Indian Navy, the warship will operate MiG-29K fighter jets, Kamov-31 helicopters, MH-60R multi-role helicopters, and the indigenous-built Advanced Light Helicopters (ALH).

Source: The Hindu


GS-I : Art and Culture Art and Culture


  • It is an ancient classical dance that originated in the Northeast state of Manipur.
  • The earliest form of dance in Manipur is Lai Haraoba which forms the basis of all dances.
  • Lai haraoba is a festival that means the merry-making of God. It has roots in Manipur’s pre-Vaishnava era.
  • The central theme of the dance is the love story of Krishna and Radha.
  • The Manipuri culture is a combination of both Indian and South-Eastern cultures.
  • The chief instrument used in this are drum and flute for this dance.

The theme in Manipuri dances

  • The majority of the themes are influenced by Vaishnava’s theme of Hinduism.
  • There are also themes related to Shaivism, Shaktism and regional deities.
  • In the tandava style, Krishna, Shakti, or Shiva are portrayed as warriors.

Three styles of Manipuri Ras Leela:

  • Tal Rasak-accompanied by clapping.
  • Danda Rasak- drums are beaten with two sticks while the position of the dancer creates the geometric pattern.
  • Mandal Rasak –the character of Krishna is at the centre whereas the gopis surrounding him.

Famous Manipuri Dancers: Yumlembham Gambhini Devi, Guru Bipin Shina, Nirmala Mehta, etc.

Source: The Hindu

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