|GS-I||Hagia Sophia: The museum of conflicts||World History|
|GS-II||Fishermen Issue with Sri Lanka||International Relations|
|GS-III||Forest fires and their effect on carbon emissions|
|PT Pointer||Original antigenic sin|
|Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE)|
|Assam Keelback Rediscovered|
|Issue of Kachchatheevu?||International Relations|
|Important GS Topics||India - Sri Lanka Relations||International Relations|
Hagia Sophia: The museum of conflicts
* An Eastern Orthodox patriarchal cathedral for about 900 years, an imperial mosque for 482 years and then a museum and a famed tourist spot starting 1935.
* This is the short history of Hagia Sophia, the sixth century Byzantine structure that has survived natural calamities, imperial invasions, crusades and a World War.
* The architectural marvel in Istanbul, which is revered by both eastern Orthodox Christians and Muslims, is now being turned into a mosque by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
* Hagia Sophia (literally ‘Holy Wisdom’) was built by the Byzantine Emperor, Justinian I, in the first half of the sixth century. This was the third cathedral being built at the site.
* The first one, with a wooden roof, is believed to have been commissioned by Emperor Constantine I in AD 325 on the remains of a pagan temple. This was burned down by rioters in AD 404.
* The second church, ordered by Constans I, was also destroyed in a fire during the Nika riots of AD 532 that saw widespread fire and destruction in Constantinople (today’s Istanbul).
* After establishing order in the city, Justinian found the fire an opportunity to rebuild the cathedral with his stamp on it. The imperial Byzantine power was at its pinnacle under Justinian. The Empire had conquered much of the historically Roman Mediterranean coast, including Italy, Rome and North Africa (The Byzantine influence would start shrinking after the outbreak of the Justinian Plague, one of the deadliest pandemics in recorded history).
* The basilica, designed by mathematician Anthemius of Tralles and physicist Isidore of Miletu, was completed in five years by more than 10,000 labourers. The Emperor reopened it in AD 537.
The Ottoman era
* Barring a few years after the Fourth Crusade, Hagia Sophia had been the cathedral of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople until the fall of the city in the 15th century
* In the early 13th century, crusaders looted the building and turned it into a Roman Catholic cathedral. But after the Byzantines recaptured the city from the Venetian crusaders, they restored the cathedral and it continued to remain the seat of the Patriarch until the Ottomans came.
* On May 28, 1453, when Constantinople was under siege and the Ottomans were making steady advances into the Byzantine defence lines, Emperor Constantine XI entered the basilica to pray.
* After prayers he returned to the city walls to coordinate the war efforts. But the Byzantine defence lasted only one day. The next day, the Ottomans, under the command of Mehmed II the Conqueror, entered the city.
* Mehmed is believed to have been mesmerised by the architectural beauty of the basilica.
* The Sultan decided to turn the basilica into a mosque. The Ottomans later commissioned the renowned medieval architect Sinan to renovate the structure.
* They built massive buttresses to support the walls. A mihrab (a semi-circular niche on the wall that indicates the qibla, the direction of Mecca) and a minbar (pulpit) were installed.
* The mosque, called Ayasofya in Turkish, remained the centre of power throughout the Ottoman rule. The Byzantine architecture had also deeply influenced Ottoman constriction projects.
* It’s visible on the most major mosques the Ottomans built such as the Blue Mosque, the Sehzade Mosque, the Suleymaniye Mosque, the Rustem Pasha Mosque and the Kilic Ali Pasha Complex.
A secular museum
* After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire following the First World War, secularists, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (who was later called Ataturk, the father of Turks), came to power.
* Ataturk, who abolished the Caliphate and launched a strong secularisation drive in the country, closed down Hagia Sophia in 1930, seven years after the foundation of the Turkish republic.
* Five years later, the building was reopened as a museum. Since then, Hagia Sophia, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been one of the most visited monuments in Turkey, and more importantly, an emblem of Christian-Muslim co-existence. Last year alone, 3.7 million people visited Hagia Sophia.
* Turning the monument back into a mosque has been a growing demand from the Islamist sections of Turkish society.
* On Friday, a Turkish administrative court cancelled the museum status of the monument. Mr. Erdogan moved fast, issuing a decree, transferring the management of Hagia Sophia from the Ministry of Culture to the Directorate of Religious Affairs.
With this, Turkey’s Islamist politics has taken a new turn.
Forest fires and their effect on carbon emissions
An ongoing question in the COVID-19 pandemic is whether—and if so, to what extent—COVID-19 receives ADE from prior infection with other coronaviruses.
The Assam keelback (Herpetoreas pealii), a snake endemic to Assam, has been found 129 years after it was last spotted by British tea planter Samuel Edward Peal in 1891.
Poba Reserve Forest:
Paper-2 I.R India and Srilanka (Mains)
In recent years, significant progress in the implementation of developmental assistance projects has further cemented the bonds of friendship between the two countries. The relationship between India and Sri Lanka is more than 2,500 years old. Both countries have a legacy of intellectual, cultural, religious and linguistic interaction.
In recent years, the relationship has been marked by close contacts at all levels. Trade and investment have grown and there is cooperation in the fields of infrastructure development, education, culture and defence.
The nearly three-decade-long armed conflict between the Sri Lankan forces and the LTTE came to an end in May 2009. During the course of the conflict, India supported the right of the Sri Lankan Government to act against terrorist forces. India's consistent position has been in favour of a negotiated political settlement, which is acceptable to all communities within the framework of a united Sri Lanka and is consistent with democracy, pluralism and respect for human rights.
Geopolitical Significance of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka’s location in the Indian Ocean region as an island State has been of strategic geopolitical relevance to several major powers. Started with the British Defence and External Affairs Agreement of 1948, and the Maritime Agreement with the USSR of 1962.
Even during the J.R Jayewardene (1978-1989) and Ranasinghe Premadasa (1989-1993) tenures, Sri Lanka was chosen to build the Voice of America transmitting station (suspected of being used for intelligence gathering purposes and electronic surveillance of the Indian Ocean).
It was the massive Chinese involvement during the Rajapaksa tenure that garnered the deepest controversy in recent years. China is building state of the art gigantic modern ports all along the Indian Ocean to the south of it, in Gwadar (Pakistan), Chittagong (Bangladesh, Kyauk Phru (Myanmar) and Hambantota (Sri Lanka). China’s string of pearl’s strategy is aimed at encircling India to establish dominance in the Indian Ocean.
Post-2015, Sri Lanka still relies heavily on China for the Port city project and for the continuation of Chinese-funded infrastructure projects in Sri Lanka. Although the Hambantota harbour is reportedly making losses, it too has potential for development due to its strategic location.
Sri Lanka has a list of highly strategic ports located among busiest sea lanes of communication.
**Sri Lanka’s Colombo Port is the 25th busiest container port in the world and the natural deep water harbor at Trincomalee is the fifth largest natural harbour in the world. Port city of Trincomalee was the main base for Eastern Fleet and British Royal Navy during the Second World War. Sri Lanka’s location can thus serve both commercial and industrial purposes and be used as a military base.
History of Civil War
India-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement (ISFTA)
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Issues and Conflicts
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