25 April, 2020 53 Min Read
|GS-II||PM asks Gram Panchayats to use digital platforms for better prices for village produce||Governance|
|Supreme Court guidelines regarding reservation in India||Judiciary|
|Iran-US tensions rise||Major world issues and crisis|
|SAARC ANALYSIS||International Organisations|
|GS-III||Kisan Rath app||Economy|
|TB control program since 1997 to 2025||Health|
|China Mars mission Tianwen-1 and importance of MARS||Science and Technology|
|Central Zoo Authority||Environment and Sustainable development|
GS-II : Governance
PM asks Gram Panchayats to use digital platforms for better prices for village produce
Part of: GS-II- Governance and Decentralized governance (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
On National Panchayati Raj Day 24th April, the Prime Minister launched the e-Gramswaraj Portal and Mobile app as a portal to prepare and plan Gram Panchayat Development Plans. He said that the portal will ensure real time monitoring and accountability. The portal is a major step towards digitization down to the Gram Panchayat level.
The Swamitva scheme was also launched in pilot mode in 6 states to map rural inhabited lands using drones and latest survey methods. The Prime Minister said that the scheme will ensure streamlined planning, revenue collection and provide clarity over property rights in rural areas. This will open up avenues for applying for loans from financial institutions by the owners. Disputes related to property would also be settled through the title deeds allotted through this scheme.
The interaction was an opportunity to establish direct dialogue between the Prime Minister and the Gram Panchayat representatives. The PM said that the progress of Panchayats will ensure the development of the nation and democracy.
The Prime Minister also interacted with Panchayat representatives from across the country. Speaking to a Panchayat representative from Maharashtra he urged the use digital platforms such as e-NAM and GEM portal to reach out to larger markets for better prices for village produce.
He remembered Mahatma Gandhi's conception of Swaraj as being based on Gram Swaraj. Quoting the Shastras, he reminded the people that the source of all strength is unity.
Negotiable Warehouse Receipt System
Warehousing Development and Regulatory Authority
Government e-Marketplace (GeM)
Reservation in India -Analysis
The two main aims to provide reservation as per the Consitution of India are:
In India, reservation is provided in:
Before 2019, the reservation was provided mainly on the basis of social and educational backwardness (caste). However, after the 103rd constitutional amendment in 2019, economic backwardness is also considered.
Apart from the reservation quota, additional relaxations like upper-age relaxations, additional attempts, and lower cut-off marks are also provided for various reservation categories.
A vacancy reserved for SCs or STs or OBCs cannot be filled by a candidate other than an SC or ST or OBC candidate, as the case may be.
As seen from the above table, about 60% of seats are reserved in India – for various sections like ST, SC, OBC, and EWS – with respect to Government jobs and Higher Education Institutions. 3% of seats are also reserved for differently-abled persons across all categories.
This also means that only 40% of seats are available under merit. In the merit seats, not only the general category candidates but all other categories like SC, ST, OBC, and EWS can also compete.
History of Reservation System in India :
To an extent, reservation as a policy is pursued by the State to correct the historical injustice done to certain castes by the so-called “upper castes”. The caste system prevailed in India had alienated many “lower castes” from the mainstream – hindering their development. To a great extent, the repercussions are still felt.
Original Constitution of India has provided reservation only for quota in legislatures – that too only for 10 years until 1960 (article 334). Subsequent amendments to the constitution extended the period of reservation for quota in legislatures.
Provisions of reservations in Educational Institutions and Government Jobs – article 15(4) and article 16 (4) – were too created by means of Constitutional Amendments later. No time period is given for the validity of the reservations mentioned in article 15(4) and article 16(4).
The initial reservations were only for SC and ST [article 15(4) and article 16(4)]. OBCs were included in the ambit of reservation in 1991 [article 15(5)]. In 2019, Economically Weaker Sections are also included [article 15(6) and article 16(6)].
Creamy layer chronology:
How was the creamy layer made applicable to SC/ST members?
Constitutional Provision: Article 335 recognises that special measures need to be adopted for considering the claims of SCs and STs to services and posts, in order to bring them at par. It is read as: “The claims of the members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the making of appointments to services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a State.”
M.Nagaraj case judgements:
The Court in this case laid down three conditions for promotion of SCs and STs in public employment:
Present status and demand by the Centre:
Reservation provides appropriate positive discrimination for the benefit of the socially and educationally backward sections of the society. And the creamy layer concept helps in ensuring that only the genuinely deserving and the most downtrodden members of any particular community get those reservation benefits.
Iran-US tensions rise on Trump threat, Iran satellite launch
Part of: GS-II- International Issues (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
Iran's president Hassan Rouhani called on the country's armed forces to maintain vigilance against “provocative actions by foreigners in the region, as a war of words with the US escalated.
“The UN has called upon Iran not to undertake any activity related to ballistic missiles designed to be capable of delivering nuclear weapons. Iran is not abiding by that.
SAARC AND ITS ANALYSIS
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was established with the signing of the SAARC Charter in Dhaka on 8 December 1985. SAARC comprises of eight Member States: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The Secretariat of the Association was set up in Kathmandu on 17 January 1987.
There are currently nine Observers to SAARC, namely: (i) Australia; (ii) China; (iii) the European Union; (iv) Iran; (v) Japan; (vi) the Republic of Korea; (vii) Mauritius; (viii) Myanmar; and (ix) the United States of America.
Objectives of SAARC:
Decisions at all levels are to be taken on the basis of unanimity; and bilateral and contentious issues are excluded from the deliberations of the Association.
AREAS OF COOPERATION
SAARC Specialized Bodies
SAARC Development Fund (SDF)
South Asian University
South Asian Regional Standards Organization
SAARC Arbitration Council
Importance of SAARC for India:
South Asian Satellite:
The GSAT-9(SAARC Satellite) has been launched with an objective to provide different communication applications in Ku-band with coverage over South Asian countries.It is launched by GSLV F09- 49 metres tall and weighing around 450 ton, the GSLV is a three stage rocket. The first stage is fired with solid fuel, the second with liquid fuel and the third is the cryogenic engine. The first stage is fired with solid fuel, the second with liquid fuel and the third is the cryogenic engine.
This is what it means for India and South Asia:
GS-III : Economy
Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare had launched “Kisan Rath” App on 17.04.2020 to facilitate Farmers and Traders in identifying right mode of transportation for movement of farm produce ranging from food grain (cereal, coarse cereal, pulses etc), Fruits & Vegetables, oil seeds, spices, fiber crops, flowers, bamboo, log & minor forest produce, coconuts etc. Till date, total of 80,474 farmers and 70,581 traders are registered on this App.
Kisan Rath mobile app:
The Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare has launched ‘Kisan Rath’ mobile application (app) to facilitate transportation of foodgrains and perishable during lockdown
Features of the Kisan Rath app:
RNTCP - National Tuberculosis Elimination Program (NTEP), National Strategic Plan (NSP)
The Ministry of Health & Family Welfare has written to all States/UTs to ensure that the all the facilities under National TB Elimination Programme (NTEP) in the States and UTs remain fully functional in public interest and ensure that the diagnosis and treatment of TB patients goes without any interruption notwithstanding the COVID-19 pandemic situation.
At the start of 2020 the central government has renamed the RNTCP the National Tuberculosis Elimination Program (NTEP), the commitment is emphasised of the Union government achieving the sustainable development goal of ending TB by 2025, five years ahead of the global targets.
The RNTCP in India
The large scale implementation of the Indian government’s Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP) (sometimes known as RNTCP 1) was started in 1997. The RNTCP was then expanded across India until the entire nation was covered by the RNTCP in March 2006. At this time the RNTCP also became known as RNTCP II. RNTCP II was designed to consolidate the gains achieved in RNTCP I, and to initiate services to address TB/HIV, MDR-TB and to extend RNTCP to the private sector.
RNTCP uses the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) strategy and reaches over a billion people in 632 districts/reporting units. The RNTCP is responsible for carrying out the Government of India five year TB National Strategic Plans.
With the RNTCP both diagnosis and treatment of TB are free. There is also, at least in theory, no waiting period for patients seeking treatment and TB drugs.
Objectives of RNTCP:
New sputum positive patients are those people who have never received TB treatment before, or who have taken TB drugs for less than a month. They have also had a positive result to a sputum test, which diagnoses them as having TB.2
National Strategic Plan (NSP) 2012 - 2017
There have been a number of five year National Strategic Plans (NSP)s since the start of the RNTCP. The NSP 2012 - 2017 had the aim of achieving universal access to quality diagnosis and treatment. Before this there was little treatment available through the RNTCP for the treatment of drug resistant TB.
Complete geographical coverage for diagnostic and treatment services for multi-drug resistant TB was achieved in 2013. A total of 93,000 people with MDR TB were diagnosed and had been given treatment for drug resistant TB by 2015. Also, the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) had collaborated with the RNTCP and had made HIV-TB collaboration effective. Most TB patients registered by the RNTCP were receiving HIV screening and 90% of HIV positive TB patients were receiving antiretroviral treatment.
Notification by the private sector
A government order in May 2012 made it compulsory for health care providers to notify every TB case diagnosed. This was done with the aim of improving the collection of patient care information. It meant that in future all private doctors, caregivers and clinics treating a TB patient had to report every case of TB to the government.
Banning of sero-diagnostic tests
In June 2012 the GoI prohibited the import and sale of serodiagnostic tests for TB. It is now believed that this has saved countless people from having inaccurate results.
Development of Nikshay
The Central TB Division developed a case based and web based system called “Nikshay”. This helped with the reporting of all TB cases. It was scaled up nationally.
Standards for TB Care in India
The Standards for TB Care in India was also developed and it was published in 2014. The Standards describe what should be done, and the TB treatment and care that should be provided throughout India, including what should be provided in the private sector.
Revised Technical & Operational Guidance
India National Strategic Plan (NSP) for TB 2017 - 2025
The Indian TB National Strategic Plan (NSP) 2017 - 2025 is the plan produced by the government of India (GoI) which sets out what the government believes is needed to eliminate TB in India. The NSP 2017 - 2025 describes the activities and interventions that the GoI believes will bring about significant change in the incidence, prevalence and mortality from TB. This is in addition to what is already going on in the country.
Visions & Goals of the National Strategic Plan
Four strategic areas of
Detect, Treat, Prevent & Build.There is also across all four areas, an overarching theme of the Private Sector. Another overarching theme is that of Key Populations.
The aim is to detect all those people with drug sensitive TB as well as those with drug resistant TB. The emphasis is to be on reaching TB patients seeking care from private providers and also finding people with undiagnosed TB in “high risk” or key populations. This is to be done through:
The Technical & Operational Guidelines for TB Control (TOG) describes how various tests should be used to diagnose anyone who has signs and symptoms suggesting that they might have TB. The tests to be used are sputum smear microscopy, chest X ray and the new CB-NAAT test. The CB-NAAT test is beginning to be made available throughout India. There is a diagram, or set of rules, which shows which tests should be used for different groups of people.
Active case finding
The main objective of active case finding (ACF) is to detect TB cases early and to initiate treatment promptly. The NSP emphasizes the need to shift from passive case finding, which is waiting for people to seek care, to ACF which involves seeking out people in targeted groups.
Nutritional support for patients with TB
It has now been announced that patients with TB will receive R500 a month for food.
Under nutrition is a risk factor for TB in India. Under nutrition worsens the nutritional status, generating a vicious cycle which can lead to adverse outcomes during and after treatment for patients with active TB. This includes those with MDR-TB. So this payment is partially to ensure that patients with TB have adequate food. There is more about food and TB and nutrition & TB.
Preventing the emergence of TB in susceptible populations. This is to be done through
Build and strengthen relevant policies. Provide extra capacity for institutions and extra human resources capacity. This is to be done through:
China Mars mission Tianwen-1
Part of: GS-III- S&T Space (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
Aiming to catch up with India, U.S., Russia and the European Union to reach the red planet, China’s Mars mission plans to complete orbiting, landing and roving in one mission
China named its first Mars exploration mission to be launched later this year as Tianwen-1 as it celebrated Space Day to mark the 50th anniversary of the launch of the country’s first satellite Dong Fang Hong-1 in 1970.
China in recent years has emerged as a major space power with manned space missions and landing a rover in the dark side of the moon. It is currently building a space station of its own.
However, China’s attempts to send an exploratory probe to Mars called Yinghuo-1, in a Russian spacecraft in 2011 failed as shortly after the launch and it was declared lost and later burnt during re-entry.
The U.S., Russia, the EU besides India so far succeeded in sending missions to Mars regarded as the most complex space mission.
India became the first Asian country to have successfully launched its Mars orbiter mission, Mangalyaan which has entered the orbit of the red planet in 2014.
India also became the first country to have entered the Martian orbit in its first attempt.
About MARS (PT SHOT)
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury. In English, Mars carries the name of the Roman god of war and is often referred to as the 'Red Planet'. The latter refers to the effect of the iron oxide prevalent on Mars' surface, which gives it a reddish appearance distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.
There are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life. Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Perseverance and Rosalind Franklin rovers. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is less than 1% of the Earth's, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be made largely of water. The volume of water ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted, would be sufficient to cover the entire planetary surface to a depth of 11 meters (36 ft). In November 2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of underground ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior.
Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) or Mission Mangalyaan is the first interplanetary space mission of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It was successfully launched on 5th November 2013. The space probe of this mission has been orbiting the Mars since 24th September 2014. Some of the highlights of this successful mission was
Which was the Launch Vehicle used for Mars Orbiter Mission?
Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) was launched using Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV XL – C25) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh. It took 298 days for the Mars probe to reach the orbit of Mars. The probe is being tracked from ISRO centres located in Bangalore.
What were the Objectives of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)?
The primary objective was to develop the necessary technologies for interplanetary space missions. The other objectives were
What were the Scientific Instruments Carried on the MOM mission?
Payload in the Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) was made of 5 scientific instruments.
Jai Hind Jai Bharat
Source: World new web
Precautionary Measures to protect tigers in Zoo:
Central Zoo Authority
Recognition of Zoo Rules, 1992:
Roles & Functions:
Some major initiatives:
National Board for Wild Life