23 April, 2020
139 Min Read
|GS-II||RSTV Special: Oil Price War & Implications||International Relations|
|Acts of violence against health care workers as cognizable, non-bailable offences||Governance|
|Pre-Retirement Judgements and Post Retirement Jobs|
|GS-III||COVID-19 and Zoonotic diseases|
|Covid-19 and Economic shocks & IEA||Economic Issues|
|Facebook takeover of Jio-10 percent stake||Economic Issues|
|Integrated Child Development Scheme|
|All about World Earth Day|
|Global remittances will see a sharp fall-World Bank||Economic Issues|
|A time for planetary solidarity|
|Trump set to sign immigration order||Economic Issues|
|Indian test kits must for reliability|
|Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute|
|PT Pointer||SEBI eases norms on IPO, rights issues||Economic Issues|
|COVID India Seva launched||Government policies and interventions|
|World Earth Day|
|Denied alcohol, many take to ‘arishtams’||Art and Culture|
|Brent and WTI|
|Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services-IPBES|
|Earth Day Network|
|Iran says it launched military satellite into orbit||International Relations|
|Usha Ganguly, veteran theatre actor passes away||Art and Culture|
RSTV Special: Oil Price War & Implications
Part of: GS-III- Economy (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
The oil prices have reached their lowest levels in years, leading to the deepest oil crisis in decades. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and its allies led by Russia under the OPEC+ framework have agreed to cut their oil output by 10m barrels per day, or 10% of global supplies. This move is aimed at propping up the falling crude oil prices. They expect the United States and other producers to join in their effort by reducing up to 5m barrels per day.
Impact of COVID-19 on Oil Sector:
Disrupted supply chains:
Miscellaneous factors at play:
Move towards Renewable energy:
Governance structure for energy sector:
Too low oil price level:
Interdependency of the world economy:
Finalize an agreement:
Global governance structure:
Reforming the sector:
Acts of violence against health care workers as cognizable, non-bailable offences
Part of: GS-II- Governance (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
The Union Cabinet has approved promulgation of Ordinance to amend the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 in the light of COVID-19 pandemic situation making acts of violence against the healthcare workers as cognizable and non-bailable offences.
Under it , there is a provision to provide compensation for injury to healthcare service personnel or for causing damage or loss to the property. The health workers who are trying to save the country from this COVID-19 pandemic are unfortunately facing attacks. The investigation into the cases of attack on healthcare workers will be completed within 30 days and judgment will be pronounced within one year.
The accused of the attack can attract a punishment ranging from 3 months to 5 years and a fine from 50 thousand rupees to 2 lakh rupees. In case of grievous injuries, the accused can be sentenced from 6 months to 7 years and they can also be penalized from one lakh to 5 lakh rupees. If damage is done to the vehicles or clinics of healthcare workers, then a compensation amounting to twice the market value of the damaged property will be taken from the accused.
The also government took the decision of providing 50 lakh rupees insurance cover each for all healthcare workers including doctors, nurses and ASHA workers. Under Ayushman Bharat - Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana, the beneficiary will get the treatment in COVID hospital free of cost in case of coronavirus infection and in case of non- Covid diseases, the beneficiary will also be eligible to get the treatment in non empanelled hospitals free of cost through the certificate issued by the government hospital.
Ordinances are like a law but not enacted by the Parliament but rather promulgated by President of India when Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha or either of those is not in session. Union Cabinet’s recommendation is a must for an ordinance to be promulgated. Using ordinances, immediate legislative actions can be taken.
Note: For an ordinance to exist, it should be approved by the Parliament within six weeks of it being introduced. Parliament is required to sit within 6 weeks from when Ordinance was introduced.
What is Ordinance Making Power of Executive?
Ordinance Making Power of President
Article 123 deals with the ordinance making power of the President. President has many legislative powers and this power is one of them.
Details about President’s ordinance making power is given in the table below:
President’s Ordinance Making Power
He can only promulgate the ordinance under these circumstances:
An ordinance can be retrospective in nature
An ordinance rolled out when both the houses are in session is void in nature
The Parliament has to approve the ordinance within six weeks from its reassembly
Acts, done and completed under the ordinance before it lapses, remains fully active
Unlike the Indian Constitution, most of the democratic constitution of the world don’t give such ordinance making power to their President
It has no connection with the President’s power to proclaim a national emergency
The power of ordinance making is not to be taken as a substitute for the legislative power. Only under special circumstances, ordinances can be rolled out
President’s power to roll out ordinance is justiciable on the ground of malafide
What are the limitations of ordinance making power of President?
There are the following limitations:
Note: In RC Cooper vs. Union of India (1970) the Supreme Court, while examining the constitutionality of the Banking Companies (Acquisition of Undertakings) Ordinance, 1969 which sought to nationalise 14 of India’s largest commercial banks, held that the President’s decision could be challenged on the grounds that ‘immediate action’ was not required; and the Ordinance had been passed primarily to by-pass debate and discussion in the legislature.
Epidemic Diseases Act of 1897
What is Epidemic Diseases Act of 1897?
It is routinely enforced across the country for dealing with outbreaks of diseases such as swine flu, dengue, and cholera.
It was introduced by colonial government to tackle the epidemic of bubonic plague that had spread in the erstwhile Bombay Presidency in the 1890s.
Why was this act criticised?
Historians have criticised the Act for its potential for abuse.
Using powers conferred by the Act, colonies authorities would search suspected plague cases in homes and among passengers, with forcible segregations, evacuations, and demolitions of infected places.
In 1897, the year the law was enforced, freedom fighter Bal Gangadhar Tilak was punished with 18 months’ rigorous imprisonment after his newspapers Kesari and Mahratta admonished imperial authorities for their handling of the plague epidemic.
Provisions of the 1897 Epidemic Diseases Act:
Examples of implementation:
It was thought that on retirement from high constitutional office, a judge would lead a retired life. Nobody ever expected them to accept plum posts. But the clear demarcation between the judiciary and executive got blurred as many judges over the years began to accept posts offered by the government.
Powers and Independency of Judiciary in India
COVID-19 and Zoonotic diseases
Part of: GS-III- Health (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
It is found that the coronavirus outbreak certainly comes from the animal world. However, it is said that humans are to be blamed for the pandemic.
Zoonoses or Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that can naturally be transmitted/spread between animals (usually vertebrates) and humans. These diseases can be caused by viruses, fungi, parasites, and bacteria.
What are Zoonotic Diseases?
Zoonosis refers to the transmission of diseases between animals and humans. Such diseases are termed as Zoonotic Diseases. Zoonotic diseases range from mild to severe, while in extreme cases can even be fatal.
Classification of Zoonotic diseases
The classification of diseases is usually done on the basis of the pathogen causing the disease. With the advancement in science, scientists and medical professionals have been able to identify and study in detail the etiological agents causing the diseases. Etiological agents usually refer to the causative agent of a diseased condition. The zoonoses are classified on the basis of three factors:
Transmission of Zoonotic Diseases
Zoonotic diseases are transmitted through various means. The chances of diseases getting transmitted increase due to the expansion of transition zones between adjacent ecosystems when forests are cleared off for agricultural purposes. This is because the environment is overlapped for wild and domesticated animals. Some of the most common ways of transmission of the diseases are:
Causes of Zoonotic Diseases
The zoonotic diseases can be transmitted from animals to humans in multiple ways, most often, people with a weakened immune system are at risk. A few of the factors responsible for causing zoonotic diseases are:
Covid-19 and Economic shocks
Part of: GS-III- Economy (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
Steep fall in crude oil prices. Recently, May futures for the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) U.S. crude has plunged below zero and Brent crude futures has also witnessed a steep decline. A negative price implies that a seller would have to pay the buyer to hold the oil to be supplied.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) is a grouping of major oil-importing countries which was created in 1974 by the members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) at Paris, France, following the Arab oil embargo of 1973 which had resulted in a dramatic rise in oil prices. It was established with a broad mandate on energy security and other issues about energy policy cooperation among the member countries. Long term supply, information transparency, security of supply, international energy relations, research and development were its focal points. However, today IEA has expanded and evolved to be at the heart of global dialogue on energy, examining the spectrum of energy issues to advocate policies and ensure affordability, reliability & sustainability of energy among its member countries. It has 30 member nations and only OECD nations are given membership to the IEA. All the OECD member states except for Chile, Iceland, Israel, Mexico and Slovenia are members of IEA. India became an Associate Member of IEA in 2017 while Mexico became the 30th member of IEA in 2018. The other Associate members, apart from India, are China, Brazil, Morocco, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore.
Objectives of IEA
The International Energy Agency was established with an objective to coordinate the response of the participating states to the world energy crisis along with developing a mechanism for oil-sharing for use during supply difficulties. IEA mainly focuses on its energy policies which include economic development, energy security and environmental protection. These policies are also known as the 3 E’S of IEA.
Structure of Indian Energy Agency (IEA)
The IEA consists of three main controlling bodies:
The Governing Board is composed of ministers of all the member-governments who are responsible for decision making. The Board is assisted by three standing groups dealing with emergency questions, long-term cooperation and the oil market.
The Management Committee deals with energy, research and development and the non-member countries.
The Secretariat is headed by the Executive Director. Apart from these, the IEA also maintains an import-monitoring system and a quick response mechanism.
India and IEA
India became an associate member of IEA in March 2017 but it was in engagement with IEA long before its association with the organization. India was a party to the Declaration of Cooperation, signed in 1998 which covered the matters relating to energy security and statistics. India had also signed three joint statements with IEA that covered various areas of mutual interest in the energy arena with major focus to gas and oil security.
Some of the benefits provided to India for being an associate member of the IEA are:
Jio partnership with Facebook
In a major boost to Reliance Jio, social media giant Facebook is investing $5.7 billion (Rs 43,574) in it, making Facebook its largest minority shareholder. The deal has been announced this morning, with Jio putting out a media note and Facebook talking about it on its official blog post.
Jio said that the Facebook investment that it is receiving is the “largest investment for a minority stake by a technology company anywhere in the world and the largest FDI in the technology sector in India.
Reasons for the partnership :
Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS)
The Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) Scheme providing for supplementary nutrition, immunization and pre-school education to the children is a popular flagship programme of the government. Launched in 1975, it is one of the world’s largest programmes providing for an integrated package of services for the holistic development of the child. ICDS is a centrally sponsored scheme implemented by state governments and union territories. The scheme is universal covering all the districts of the country.
The Scheme has been renamed as Anganwadi Services.
Services under ICDS
The ICDS Scheme offers a package of six services, viz.
Three of the six services viz. immunization, health check-up and referral services are related to health and are provided through National Health Mission and Public Health Infrastructure. The services are offered at Anganwadi Centres through Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) and Anganwadi Helpers (AWHS) at grassroots level.
All components of ICDS except Supplementary Nutrition Programme (SNP) are financed through a 60:40 ratio (central : state). The Supplementary Nutrition Programme (SNP) component was funded through a 50:50 ratio. The North East states have a 90:10 ratio.
Under SNP, beneficiaries are given hot meals along with take-home rations. For children, the quantum of rations and meals received depends on their malnutrition levels. SNP is provided for 300 days at the rate of Rs 8 per day for children and Rs 9.50 per day for pregnant and lactating mothers. Severely malnourished children are allocated Rs 12 per day. Adolescent Girls (11-14 years out of school) are allocated Rs 9.50 per day.
ICDS Systems Strengthening and Nutrition Improvement Project (ISSNIP)
The overall goal of the project is to improve nutritional and early childhood development outcomes of children in India. Key objectives of Phase 1 are to support the GoI and the selected States to strengthen the ICDS policy framework, systems and capacities, and facilitate community engagement, to ensure greater focus on children under three years of age in the project districts; and strengthen convergent actions for improved nutrition outcomes in the stipulated districts.
The project will be implemented in identified 162 districts having higher proportion of child under - nutrition across eight States, viz. Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh . Besides, urban pilots will be undertaken in and around NCR of Delhi and convergent nutrition actions pilots in some selected districts in two non - project States viz., Odisha and Uttarakhand.
• Anganwadi is a type of rural mother and child care centre in India.
• They were started by the Indian government in 1975 as part of the Integrated Child Development Services program to combat child hunger and malnutrition.
• A typical Anganwadi centre provides basic health care in Indian villages.
• It is a part of the Indian public health care system. Basic health care activities include contraceptive counseling and supply, nutrition education and supplementation, as well as pre-school activities.
• The centres may be used as depots for oral rehydration salts, basic medicines and contraceptives.
Anganwadi Worker responsibilities:
• The Ministry of Women and Child Development has laid down guidelines for the responsibilities of Anganwadi workers (AWW).
1. Showing community support and active participation in executing this programme.
2. To conduct regular quick surveys of all families.
3. Organize pre-school activities.
4. Provide health and nutrition education to families especially pregnant women on how to breastfeed, etc.
5. Motivating families to adopt family planning.
6. Educating parents about child growth and development.
7. Assist in the implementation and execution of Kishori Shakti Yojana (KSY) to educate teenage girls and parents by organizing social awareness programmes etc.
8. Identify disabilities in children, and so on.
Anganwadi Worker functions:
• They need to provide care for newborn babies and ensure that all children below the age of 6 are immunized.
• They are expected to provide antenatal care for pregnant women and ensuring that they are immunized against tetanus. In addition to this they provide post-natal care to nursing mothers.
• Since they primarily focus on poor and malnourished groups, they provide supplementary nutrition to children below the age of 6 and nursing and pregnant women.
• They ensure that regular health and medical check-ups for women 15- to 49-years-old take place and that all women and children have access to these check-ups.
• They work toward providing pre-school education to children who are between 3 and 5 years old.
• Anganwadi Worker (AWW) guides ASHA in performing activities such as organising Health Day once/twice a month at Anganwadi Centre and orientating women on health related issues such as importance of nutritious food, personal hygiene, care during pregnancy, importance of immunisation etc. Anganwadi worker is a depot holder for drug kits and will be issuing it to ASHA.
• Every 40 to 65 Anganwadi workers are supervised by one Mukhya Sevika. They provide on-the-job training.
• In addition to performing the responsibilities with the Anganwadi workers, they have other duties such as:
1. Keeping track of who are benefiting from the programme from low economic status — specifically those who belong to the malnourished category.
2. Guide the Anganwadi workers in assessing the age and weight of children and how to plot their weights.
3. Demonstrate effective methods, for example, in providing health and nutrition education to mothers.
4. Maintain statistics of Anganwadis and the workers to determine what can be improved.
• The Mukhya Sevika then reports to the Child development Projects Officer (CDPO).
History of Earth Day:
Earth Day was a unified response to an environment in crisis — oil spills, smog, rivers so polluted they literally caught fire.
On April 22, 1970, 20 million Americans — 10% of the U.S. population at the time — took to the streets, college campuses and hundreds of cities to protest environmental ignorance and demand a new way forward for our planet.
The first Earth Day is credited with launching the modern environmental movement, and is now recognized as the planet’s largest civic event.
Earth Day Network:
To build the world’s largest environmental movement to drive transformative change for people and planet.
Earth Day Network’s mission is to diversify, educate and activate the environmental movement worldwide. Growing out of the first Earth Day in 1970, Earth Day Network is the world’s largest recruiter to the environmental movement, working with more than 75,000 partners in over 190 countries to drive positive action for our planet.
Theme of Earth Day 2020:
The theme for Earth Day 2020 is climate action. The enormous challenge — but also the vast opportunities — of action on climate change have distinguished the issue as the most pressing topic for the 50th anniversary.
Climate change represents the biggest challenge to the future of humanity and the life-support systems that make our world habitable.
Recently, the Union Health minister urged the use of the e-Raktkosh portal as a single point for maintaining real-time information on the status of stocks of each blood group.
e-Raktkosh portal is a Centralized Blood Bank Management System. It is a comprehensive IT solution to standardize and streamline the standard operating procedures, guidelines and workflow of blood banks across the nation. It was inaugurated on 7th April 2016 by then Minister of Health and Family Welfare (MoHWFW)
It enforces Drug & Cosmetic Act, National blood policy standards and guidelines ensuring proper management of blood. e-Rakt Kosh has components for management of the blood donation life cycle which includes :
Global remittances will see a sharp fall: World Bank
Remittances and SDGs:
Importance of remittances for India:
World Bank’s Migration and Development Brief
Lessons learnt during COVID19 for sustainable environmental and livelihood practices: (Solutions for Sustainable development-Mains)
Green Card Definition
Green Card is the unofficial nickname for the permit allowing immigrants to permanently live and work in the United States of America.
Those who have a Green Card are allowed to emigrate to the USA and stay there for as long as they like. Owning a Green Card is the basic requirement for moving to the USA. That means that anyone who would like to permanently live and work in the USA requires, firstly, a Green Card.
A person with a nonimmigrant visa is dependent on their job or the purpose of their stay in the USA, but a Green Card differs in that it gives the holder total freedom. Green Card holders can choose their place of work or where they want to live in the USA without limits and for however long they want.
US H1B Visa:
Importance of Antibody kits:
Drawbacks of Antibody kits:
What is Rapid Test-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test?
Steps taken by ICMR:
Indian Initiative on Earth BioGenome Sequencing (IIEBS)
About Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute:
SEBI eases norms on IPO, rights issues
What’s in News?
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has relaxed certain regulatory requirements related to rights issues and initial public offers (IPOs) to make it easier for companies to raise funds at a time when the COVID-19 pandemic has made the secondary markets increasingly volatile.
COVID India Seva launched
The Union Health Minister has launched the ‘COVID India Seva’, an interactive platform to establish a direct channel of communication during the pandemic.
About the COVID India Seva:
World Earth Day
Vice President greets people on the occasion of World Earth Day.
About the World Earth Day:
Denied alcohol, many take to ‘arishtams’
Brent and WTI
Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services-IPBES
Earth Day Network
Iran says it launched military satellite into orbit
Amidst tension with the US, Iran today said that it had successfully launched its first military satellite into the orbit. The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) reported that the first military satellite “Noor”, which means light was successfully put into orbit. The satellite was launched from three-stage carrier Ghased and was placed in 425-km orbit.
Ganguly was an eminent theatre personality who is most known for her work in Hindi theatre in Kolkata in the period between the 1970s and 1980s. She founded the theatre group, Rangakarmee, in 1976. The theatre group produced many plans such as Rudali, Mahabhoj, Himmat Mai, Antaryatra and Court Martial.
Ganguly started acting in the same year with Sangit Kala Mandir and started work on her first play Mitti Ki Gadi, where she essayed the role of Vasantsena. The play was based on Mrichchakatikam by Shudrak, 1970.
Usha Ganguly was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for Direction in 1998. The award was conferred by the Sangeet Natak Akademi, which is India's National Academy of Music, Dance & Drama.
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