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02 Dec, 2022

27 Min Read

Dispute on the Assam-Meghalaya Border

GS-II : Governance Federal issues

Dispute on the Assam-Meghalaya Border

  • The killing of six people in an Assam police shooting comes ahead of the second phase of talks between the two states to resolve their boundary dispute, and there are fears that it will cast a long shadow over the talks.


  • During the British colonial era, undivided Assam included modern-day Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, and Mizoram.
  • Meghalaya was formed in 1972.
  • Its borders were drawn according to the Assam Reorganisation (Meghalaya) Act of 1969, but the border has been interpreted differently since then.
  • Meghalaya's government identified 12 areas of difference with Assam in 2011, spanning approximately 2,700 square kilometres.
  • Some of these disagreements stem from recommendations made by a 1951 committee chaired by then-Assam chief minister Gopinath Bordoloi.
  • It recommended that Blocks I and II of Jaintia Hills (Meghalaya) be transferred to the Assam district of Mikir Hill (Karbi Anglong), as well as some areas from Meghalaya's Garo Hills to the Assam district of Goalpara.
  • The 1969 Act is based on these recommendations, which Meghalaya rejects on the grounds that these areas were originally owned by the Khasi-Jaintia Hills.
  • According to Assam, Meghalaya lacks the necessary documents to prove that these areas historically belonged to Meghalaya.

What is the border dispute?

  • In 12 stretches of their 884-kilometer shared border, Assam and Meghalaya have a long-standing dispute.
  • The two states recently signed an agreement that resolved the dispute in six of twelve areas.
  • Both states have recently formed regional committees. The second round of negotiations for the remaining six phases was scheduled to begin by the end of this month.
  • Three areas contested between West Khasi Hills district in Meghalaya and Kamrup district in Assam were identified for resolution in the first phase.
  • Two are available between RiBhoi in Meghalaya and Kamrup-Assam.
  • One between Meghalaya's East Jaintia Hills and Assam's Cachar.

Both parties submitted reports that were based on five mutually agreed-upon principles:

  • Historical context
  • Local population ethnicity
  • Relationship with the boundary
  • Will of the people
  • Administrative comfort.

What are the names of the 12 locations?

  • Upper Tarabari, Gazang Reserve Forest, Hahim, Langpih, Borduar, Boklapara, Nongwah, Matamur, Khanapara-Pilangkata, Deshdemoreah Block I and Block II, Khanduli, and Retacherra are some of the protected areas in the area.

India's Inter-state border disputes


  • The conflict concerns the Belgaum district.
  • When states were reorganized in 1956, the area was transferred to Karnataka; prior to that, it was under the presidency of Bombay.


  • The border dispute between Assam and Mizoram is the result of two British-era notifications, issued in 1875 and 1933, respectively.
  • The 1875 notification distinguished the Lushai Hills from the plains of Cachar and established the boundary between the Lushai Hills and Manipur.
  • Assam, on the other hand, wishes to have the boundary delineated in 1986,(based on the 1933 notification).

Himachal Pradesh-Haryana

  • The Parwanoo region has received attention as a result of the border dispute between the two states.
  • It is adjacent to the Haryana district of Panchkula, and the state has claimed portions of land in Himachal Pradesh as its own.

Ladakh-Himachal Pradesh

  • Sarchu, a region on the route between Leh and Manali, is claimed by Himachal and Ladakh.
  • Sarchu is located between the Himachal districts of Lahul and Spiti and the Ladakh district of Leh.

Assam-Arunachal Pradesh

  • The grievance of Arunachal is that the reorganization of North Eastern states unilaterally transferred to Assam several forested tracts in the plains that had traditionally belonged to hill tribal chiefs and communities.

Way Forward

Despite multiple rounds of talks, Assam's border disputes with other Northeastern states remain unresolved. Central Committee should be constituted to resolve the border issues permanently with the support of the states concerned.

Read Also: Northeast’s Integration

Source: The Hindu

Prevention of Cruelty to Animal Act

GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Animals

Prevention of Cruelty to Animal Act

The Union Government recently proposed 61 amendments to the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960.

More on the news

  • The Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry, and Dairy has prepared the draught Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, (Amendment) Bill-2022.

The following are the draft's key provisions:

Imprisonment for animal cruelty:

  • For killing an animal, the draft proposes a maximum 5-year prison sentence plus a fine. A new clause has been proposed to address this.
  • The Act defines gruesome cruelty as "an act that causes extreme pain and suffering to the animals, which may result in lifelong disability or death."
  • Gruesome cruelty is punishable by a minimum fine of Rs 50,000, which may be increased to Rs 75,000, or by a judicial magistrate in consultation with the jurisdictional veterinarians, whichever is greater, or by imprisonment for one year, which may be extended to three years, or by both.
  • Bestiality:Under the new category of 'gruesome cruelty,' the draught includes 'bestiality' as a crime.

Community animals:

  • The local government is responsible for the care of community animals.
  • According to the draft proposals, a community animal is any animal born in a community for which no ownership has been claimed.
  • It does not include wild animals as defined by the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.

Animals have five freedoms:

  • The draft also proposes adding a new Section 3A that gives animals "five freedoms."
  • Every person in charge of an animal must ensure that the animal in his care or under his charge has the following freedoms: freedom from thirst, hunger, and malnutrition; freedom from discomfort caused by the environment; freedom from pain, injury, and diseases; freedom to express normal species behaviour; and freedom from fear and distress.

Animals have constitutional protection.

  • The Indian Constitution imposes a duty on both the state and the people to ensure the safety and conservation of animals at all costs.

Article 48A :

  • According to Article 48A, it is the responsibility of the state to improve animal strength and protect the country's wildlife. It will work to increase the population of animals and protect them from all forms of attack.

Article 51A(g):

  • According to Article 51A(g), it is every citizen's Fundamental Duty to protect and improve forests and wildlife, as well as to have compassion for all living creatures.

Article 21:

  • Because of the courts' broad interpretation, the rights of animals are also protected under Article 21 of the Constitution.
  • According to the law of the land, every species has a right to life and security, and this right is not limited to humans but extends to include animals and birds as well.

The key provisions of the Animal Cruelty Prevention Act of 1960:

The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 (hereinafter PCA Act, 1960) was the first law enacted to protect the rights of animals and protect them from the pain and suffering inflicted by humans.

The following are some of the Act's main features:


  • The definition of animals in the Act includes any living creature other than humans and various forms of animals.

Offenses and penalties:

  • To protect animals from suffering and pain for the rest of their lives, the Act establishes penalties for those who cause unnecessary suffering and cruelty to animals.
  • The Act also discusses different types of animal cruelty, its exceptions, and the process of killing a suffering animal when cruelty has been imposed in order to prevent further suffering for that animal.

Guidelines for Animal Experimentation:

  • The Act emphasizes the guidelines to be followed when experimenting on an animal for scientific purposes, as well as the offenses associated with the exhibition of performing animals.

India's Animal Welfare Board:

  • One of the provisions of the Act is the establishment of the Animal Welfare Board of India

Key provisions of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972:

  • The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 aims to preserve wildlife species of both fauna and flora by establishing protected areas.
  • The Act also limits the number of animal species that can be hunted.

Some of the most important aspects of protecting animals' interests are:

  • Hunting is prohibited under the Act for the animals listed in Schedules I, II, III, and IV.
  • Installation of the following boards: The National Board for Wildlife and the State Board for Wildlife are statutory bodies established under the Act that is responsible for advising the government on wildlife conservation, reviewing and approving various wildlife projects, and promoting wildlife conservation and development.

Source: The Indian Express


GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment International Envt Treaties


  • The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is holding its 19th Conference of the Parties (CoP19) meeting in Panama City.
  • A second name for CoP19 is the World Wildlife Conference.

What were the Conference's High Points?

  • 52 suggestions that would change the laws governing the trade of sharks, reptiles, hippos, songbirds, rhinos, 200 different tree species, orchids, elephants, turtles, and more have been made.
  • India's Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) is subject to CITES rules for the trade of the species because it is included in Appendix II of the convention.
  • By relaxing the CITES regulations for exporting items made from Dalbergia sissoo, a relief was offered. This is anticipated to increase exports of Indian handicrafts.
  • A suggestion to add sea cucumbers (Thelenota) to the Convention's Appendix II has been approved by the Conference.
  • According to a study released last September by the Wildlife Conservation Society-India (WCS-India), sea cucumbers were the most commonly trafficked marine species in India from 2015 to 2021.
  • According to the data, Tamil Nadu had the largest number of marine wildlife seizures during this time. Maharashtra, Lakshadweep, and Karnataka came after the state.
  • The parties in CoP 19 of CITES gave their strong support to India's request for the introduction of the freshwater turtle Batagur kachuga (Red Crowned Roofed Turtle). When it was presented, it was well received by all of the parties.
  • India's efforts to reduce wildlife crime were praised during Operation Turtshield.
  • India further emphasised that the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 already includes many of the turtle and freshwater tortoise species that are considered to be critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened and provides them with a high level of protection.
  • India’s unusual abstention in the CITES vote on reopening the ivory trade.

About CITES:

  • To ensure that international trade in wild animals and plants does not endanger the survival of the species, 184 states have signed the CITES agreement.
  • India became the 25th party—a state that voluntarily chooses to be bound by the Convention—in 1976, two years after the convention came into force.
  • Parties are nations that have 'joined' CITES and committed to abide by its rules.
  • CITES does not supersede national laws, although being legally obligated on the Parties and requiring them to implement the Convention.
  • All CITES-listed species import, export, and re-export must be authorised through a permit system.
  • The Conference of the Parties meets every two to three years to assess how the Convention is being put into practise.

Three appendices are included:

Appendix I

  • It covers the most endangered plant and animal species on the CITES Red List.
  • Gorillas, sea turtles, the majority of lady slipper orchids, and gigantic pandas are a few examples. Currently, there are 1082 species listed.
  • Since they face extinction, CITES forbids the international commerce in their specimens, with the exception of imports made for non-commercial purposes, such as scientific research.

Appendix II

  • It contains a list of species that, while not necessarily now endangered, could become so if trade is not strictly regulated.
  • The majority of CITES species, including American ginseng, paddlefish, lions, American alligators, mahogany, and several corals, are listed in this appendix.
  • Additionally, it covers "look-alike species," or species whose trade specimens resemble those of species listed for conservation.

Appendix III

  • It is a list of species included at the request of a Party that already regulates trade in the species and that needs the cooperation of other countries to prevent unsustainable or illegal exploitation.
  • Examples include map turtles, walruses and Cape stag beetles. Currently, 211 species are listed.
  • International trade in specimens of species listed in this Appendix is allowed only on presentation of the appropriate permits or certificates.
  • Species may be added to or removed from Appendix I and II, or moved between them, only by the Conference of the Parties.

Source: Down To Earth


GS-III : Economic Issues Government policies and interventions


A recent call for startup applications for registration on the Mentorship, Advisory, Assistance, Resilience, and Growth (MAARG) portal has been issued by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

About The MAARG Portal:

  • The National Mentorship Platform by Startup India is the MAARG platform.
  • It is a one-stop platform that enables mentorship for entrepreneurs in a variety of industries, roles, stages, locations, and backgrounds.

Key characteristics:

  • programs for ecosystem enablers to receive mentoring
  • responsive user interface
  • Gratitude for valuable mentors
  • options for voice and video calls

Three steps make to the operationalization of the MAARG Portal:

  • Initially, mentor onboarding
  • 400+ professional mentors from various fields have been successfully launched and implemented.
  • Phase II: Onboarding a startup
  • From November 14, 2022, DPIIT will begin onboarding startups onto the MAARG Portal.
  • Phase III: Establishment of the MAARG Portal and Mentor Matching
  • Final launch where mentors and businesses will be matched Under Phase II, DPIIT has started the onboarding process for startups.


  • Through Artificial Intelligence (AI) based matchmaking, startups may now efficiently interact with academics, industry experts, successful founders, seasoned investors, and other specialists from around the world to receive tailored advice on growth and strategy.

About Startup India:

  • The Government of India launched this flagship program to encourage the startup culture and create a robust, inclusive environment for innovation and entrepreneurship in India.
  • A startup is a business that is started by its founders around a concept or issue that has the potential to have a big economic impact.
  • Since its founding in 2016, Startup India has introduced a number of initiatives with the goal of assisting business owners and changing India into a nation of job creators rather than job seekers.
  • In 2022, India has become the 3rd largest start-up ecosystem in the world after the US and China.

Read Also: Rooftop Solar Installations

Source: PIB

FIFA World Cup Ball History

GS-II : Governance Sports

FIFA World Cup Ball History

  • The official match ball for the Qatar World Cup, according to FIFA, travels more quickly than any other in the competition's history.

Regarding Al Rihla:

  • Al Rihla means "the voyage" in Arabic, and so does its name.
  • The name is thought to be a nod to a travelogue authored by Ibn Battuta, an explorer from the 14th century who explored Asia, Europe, and Africa.
  • Because sustainability was a top concern for the designers, Al Rihla is the first World Cup ball to be created completely with water-based inks and glues.
  • Its vivid colour was inspired by the culture, architecture, famous boats, and flag of Qatar.
  • The ball's CRT core and speed shell are its primary design elements.
  • Due to the placement of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor in the middle of the ball, Al Rihla offers an essential component for the detection of tight offside events.
  • The kick point can be detected with extreme precision thanks to this sensor, which transmits ball data to the video operation room 500 times per second.

World Cup soccer balls' formative years

  • The 1930 World Cup's inaugural match lacked an official ball. Before the final, hosts Uruguay and Argentina argued over who should choose the match ball.
  • They eventually came to an agreement that the first half would be played with Argentina's option, the Tiento, while the second half would be played with Uruguay's preferred T-model.
  • Curiously, Uruguay overturned a 1-2 deficit to win 4-2 with their preferred ball and became champions.
  • In 1950, the World Cup returned after a 12-year break, owing to World War II, with Duplo T, which did not have laces. It had valves through which the ball could be inflated with a pump and a needle.
  • Adidas entered the scene in 1970: In Mexico in 1970, Adidas came into the picture for the first time, introducing a 32-panel black-and-white design for its iconic Telstar. The visibility of the ball on television improved considerably as a result.
  • At West Germany 1974, Adidas became an official partner of Fifa as the company’s name featured on the ball for the first time.
  • As the World Cup returned to Mexico in 1986, Adidas introduced Azteca, the first fully synthetic ball to be used in the history of the World Cup.
  • The ball retained its shape after being kicked and fared much better than leather balls in water resistance and durability.
  • France 1998 saw multicolored balls in use for the first time. Tricolore had the colors of the French flag — red, white, and blue — adorning the triads.
  • At South Africa in 2010, Adidas produced the most controversial World Cup ball of all time — Jabulani.
  • The manufacturer reduced the number of panels to eight to make the ball more round .
  • After the troubles with Jabulani, when Brazil 2014 came around, Adidas sent out samples of the Brazuca to teams and players well in advance for the feedback.
  • The ball, made of six polyurethane panels, fared much better than Jabulani.
  • In the last World Cup in Russia, Adidas reinvented the classic Telstar model of 1970 with a brand-new panel design.

Read Also: PLI Scheme for Drones

Source: The Indian Express

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