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10 Dec, 2022

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FAO’s Report on The Future of Food and Agriculture

GS-II : International Relations International Organizations

FAO’s Report on The Future of Food and Agriculture

  • According to the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) new report, The Future of Food and Agriculture — Drivers and Triggers for Transformation, if agrifood systems remain unchanged, the world will face persistent food insecurity.
  • The purpose of this report is to stimulate strategic thinking and action to transform agrifood systems toward a more sustainable, resilient, and inclusive future.

What are the Report's Findings?

  • Agrifood System Drivers: There are 18 interconnected socioeconomic and environmental forces known as drivers that interact and shape the various activities that occur within agrifood systems, such as farming, food processing, and food consumption.
  • Poverty and inequalities, geopolitical instability, scarcity, and resource degradation, and climate change are some of the key drivers, and how they are addressed and managed will determine the future of food.

Food Insecurity Concerns:

  • If agrifood systems remain unchanged, the world will face persistent food insecurity, depleting resources, and unsustainable economic growth in the future.
  • The world is "terribly off track" in terms of meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), which include agrifood targets.
  • Many of the SDGs are off track and will only be achieved if agrifood systems are properly transformed to withstand ongoing global adversity that undermines food security and nutrition due to growing structural and regional inequalities.
  • By 2050, the world will have 10 billion people to feed, posing an unprecedented challenge if significant efforts are not made to reverse current trends.

Future Prospects:

  • There will be four future scenarios for agrifood systems, each with a different impact on food security, nutrition, and overall sustainability.
  • More of the same, which entails continuing to muddle along by reacting to events and crises.
  • A modified future in which some progress toward sustainable agrifood systems occurs at a slow and uncertain pace.
  • The race to the bottom depicts a world in disarray in its worst form.
  • Trading off for sustainability, in which short-term GDP growth is exchanged for inclusiveness, resilience, and sustainability of agrifood, socioeconomic, and environmental systems.

What are the recommendations?

  • Decision-makers must look beyond immediate needs. A lack of vision, piecemeal approaches, and quick fixes will cost everyone dearly.
  • There is an urgent need to alter course in order to create a more sustainable and resilient future for agrifood systems.

There is a need to work on the following key "triggers of transformation":

  • Better governance.
  • Customers who are critical and well-informed.
  • Improved income and wealth distribution
  • Innovative technologies and methods.
  • A comprehensive transformation, on the other hand, will come at a cost and will necessitate a trade-off of contrasting objectives that governments, policymakers, and consumers must address and balance while dealing with resistance to the paradigm shift.

About Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)?

  • FAO is a United Nations specialized agency that leads international efforts to end hunger.
  • Every year on October 16th, the world celebrates World Food Day. The day commemorates the anniversary of the FAO's founding in 1945.
  • It is one of the United Nations food aid organizations based in Rome (Italy). The World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) are its sister organizations.

Initiatives Launched:

  • Agricultural Heritage Systems of Global Importance (GIAHS).
  • Monitors the status of Desert Locusts all over the world.
  • The Codex Alimentarius Commission, or CAC, is in charge of overseeing the implementation of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.
  • The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture was adopted by the Thirty-First Session of the Conference of the FAO in 2001.

Flagship Publications:

  • The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA).
  • The State of the World's Forests (SOFO).
  • The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI).
  • The State of Food and Agriculture (SOFA).
  • The State of Agricultural Commodity Markets (SOCO).

Source: Down To Earth

Global Report on Health Equity for Disables

GS-II : Important reports Important reports

Global Report on Health Equity for Disables

The World Health Organization (WHO) has released a report titled Global report on health equity for persons with disabilities ahead of the International Day of Persons with Disabilities (3rd December).

What are the Report's Findings?

Statistics about Disabilities:

  • Globally, approximately 1.3 billion people, or one in every six, are currently disabled.
  • Because of systemic and persistent health inequities, many people with disabilities are at risk of dying much sooner—up to 20 years earlier—than people without disabilities.
  • Because an estimated 80% of people with disabilities live in low- and middle-income countries with limited resources, addressing these inequities is difficult.

Disabilities Pose a Risk:

  • They are twice as likely to develop chronic illnesses such as asthma, depression, diabetes, obesity, dental problems, and stroke.
  • Many disparities in health outcomes can be attributed to preventable, unfair, and unjust circumstances rather than underlying health conditions.

Some Causes of Healthcare Inequity:

  • Healthcare providers' hostile attitudes
  • Health information formats that are incomprehensible
  • Access to a health center is hampered by physical barriers, a lack of transportation, or financial constraints.

What are the suggestions?

  • It is critical to ensure that people with disabilities fully and effectively participate in all aspects of society, as well as to instill inclusion, accessibility, and non-discrimination in the medical field.
  • Health systems should be reducing, not adding to, the difficulties that people with disabilities face.
  • Ensuring health equity for people with disabilities has broader implications and can help to advance global health priorities in three ways: health equity for all is critical to achieving universal health coverage; inclusive public health interventions delivered equitably across sectors can contribute to healthier populations; and
  • Promoting health equity for people with disabilities is a critical component of all efforts to protect everyone in times of health emergency.
  • Governments, health partners, and civil society should ensure that all health sector actions include people with disabilities so that they can exercise their right to the best possible health.

What are the Initiatives for the Empowerment of the Disabled?


  • Right of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016
  • Unique Disability Identification Portal
  • Accessible India Campaign
  • DeenDayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme
  • Assistance to Disabled Persons for Purchase/fitting of Aids and Appliances
  • National Fellowship for Students with Disabilities.


  • Incheon Strategy to “Make the Right Real” for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific.
  • United Nations Convention on Rights of Persons with Disability.
  • International Day of Persons with Disabilities
  • UN Principles for People with Disabilities

Source: Down To Earth

Forced Displacement: UNDP Report

GS-II : International Relations Refugee crisis in World

Forced Displacement: UNDP Report

  • According to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) report "Turning the Tide on Internal Displacement: A Development Approach to Solutions," more than 100 million people will be forcibly displaced in 2022, the majority of whom will be within their own countries, for the first time in history.

What are the Report's Findings?


  • Over 59 million people were forcibly displaced within their own countries by the end of 2021 as a result of conflict, violence, disasters, and climate change.
  • Before the Ukraine war, an estimated 6.5 million people were internally displaced.
  • Climate change may force more than 216 million people to relocate within their own countries by 2050.
  • Internal displacement caused by disasters is becoming even more widespread, with new displacements recorded in over 130 countries and territories in 2021.
  • Approximately 30% of professional lives became unemployed, and 24% were unable to earn money in the same way they had previously. 48% of internally displaced households earned less money than they did before they were displaced.
  • Impact: Internally Displaced Persons struggle to meet their basic needs, find decent work and maintain a consistent source of income.
  • Female and youth-headed households are disproportionately affected.
  • Forced displacement is most prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, and parts of the Americas.
  • The direct global impact of internal displacement is estimated to be more than USD 21.5 billion in 2021, owing to the financial cost of providing housing, education, health, and security, and accounts to every internally displaced person.
  • A lack of accurate and widely accepted statistics on displacement has resulted in a lack of policies for displaced people.


  • Longer-term development action is required to reverse record levels of internal displacement, with climate change expected to uproot millions more people.
  • Humanitarian assistance alone will not suffice to address the world's record levels of internal displacement. There is a need to develop new approaches to dealing with the consequences of internal displacement from a development standpoint.

There are five key development solutions that can be implemented:

  • Institutional strengthening of governance
  • Increasing socioeconomic integration through increased access to jobs and services
  • Restoring safety
  • Increasing participation
  • Increasing social cohesion

What is the United Nations Development Program?

  • The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the global development network of the United Nations.
  • The United Nations Development Programme was formed by the merger of the United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance and the United Nations Special Fund.
  • The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1965 and began operations in January 1966.
  • It offers expert advice, training, and grants to developing countries, with a growing emphasis on assisting the least developed countries.
  • The UNDP Executive Board is comprised of representatives from 36 countries who serve on a rotating basis.
  • It is entirely supported by voluntary contributions from member countries.
  • UNDP is at the heart of the United Nations Sustainable Development Group (UNSDG), a 165-country network that brings together the 40 UN funds, programs, specialized agencies, and other bodies working to advance the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
  • Human Development Index is a UNDP publication.

Source: Down To Earth

Climate Finance

GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Climate Change

Climate Finance

  • Countries recently agreed at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of Parties 27 in Sharm el-Sheikh (Egypt) that a complete transformation of the international financial system was required to significantly increase resources for Climate Action.
  • The current funding for climate action amounts to only 1%-10% of the estimated needs.

What is climate finance?

  • It refers to local, national, or transnational financing derived from public, private, and alternative sources to support climate change mitigation and adaptation actions.
  • The UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol, and Paris Agreement all call for financial assistance from Parties with greater financial resources (Developed Countries) to those with fewer and more vulnerable resources (Developing Countries).
  • This adheres to the principle of "Common but Differentiated Responsibility and Respective Capabilities" (CBDR).
  • CBDR is a UNFCCC principle that recognizes individual countries' varying capabilities and responsibilities in addressing climate change. The CBDR principle was enshrined in the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992.

How Much Money Do We Need for Climate Action?

  • The global transition to a low-carbon economy is expected to cost between USD 4-6 trillion per year until 2050.
  • If net-zero emissions targets are to be met, approximately USD 4 trillion must be invested annually in the renewable energy sector until 2030.
  • Between 2022 and 2030, the cumulative requirement of developing countries for implementing their climate action plans was approximately USD 6 trillion.
  • It means that every year, at least 5% of the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) must be directed toward climate action.
  • Only a few years ago, the estimated requirements ranged from 1 to 1.5% of global GDP.
  • The USD 100 billion that developed countries have promised to mobilize each year represents nearly the entire amount of money in play right now.
  • Even this $100 billion has yet to be fully realized.
  • Developed countries say they will meet this goal by 2023. Currently, the total amount flowing in is around USD 50-80 billion per year.

What are the Obstacles to Climate Fund Mobilization?

  • Even if developed countries increase their contributions, the overall pie will likely only grow marginally.
  • The more significant increase would result from businesses and corporations investing in green projects.
  • Until now, private investments in climate finance have lagged behind public funds.
  • Only about 30% of current financial flows are from private sources.
  • The current rules and regulations of the global financial system make it extremely difficult for a large number of countries, particularly those with political instabilities or weaker institutional and governance structures, to access international finance.
  • Climate finance flows through a tangle of bilateral, regional, and multilateral channels.
  • Grants, concessionary loans, debt, equity, carbon credits, and other forms of assistance are available.
  • There are differing views on whether a specific sum of money is truly climate-related. The amount of climate finance that is currently being mobilised is widely disputed.

What taxes can be used to fund the Climate Fund?

  • The majority of additional financial resources to combat climate change would come from the pockets of ordinary citizens in the form of taxes.
  • Petrol and diesel, as well as other fossil fuels, can be taxed.
  • Coal production has already been taxed in India for several years, generating valuable resources for the government, which has primarily used it to invest in clean technologies.
  • These funds have also been used for projects related to the Clean Ganga Mission and the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • Newer forms of carbon taxation are also likely to be imposed on businesses.
  • In many cases, these would reach the average citizen of the country.

What are India's Climate Finance Initiatives?

  • National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC): The NAFCC was established in 2015 to cover the costs of climate change adaptation for Indian states and union territories that are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change.
  • The National Clean Energy Fund was established to promote clean energy and was initially funded by a carbon tax on industries that use coal.
  • It is governed by an Inter-Ministerial Group, which is chaired by the Finance Secretary.
  • Its mission is to fund innovative clean energy research and development in both the fossil and non-fossil fuel sectors.

Fund for National Adaptation:

  • The fund was established in 2014 with a corpus of Rs. 100 crores to bridge the gap between need and available funds.
  • The Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change manages the fund.

The Way Forward

  • A political commitment to raising new finance must be maintained, as well as ensuring that finance is better targeted at reducing emissions and vulnerability.
  • Learning and improving from recent experiences, particularly as the Green Climate Fund gets to work.
  • International Financial Institutions can engage with governments, central banks, commercial banks and other financial players operating at national or regional levels to create the right environment for investments in green projects.
  • Incentivising climate-friendly investments and discouraging, or even penalizing, dirty investments should also be practiced.
  • The funding transformation also involves simplification of practices, changes in the way risks to investments are assessed, and an overhaul of the credit rating systems.

Source: Business Standard

Indo-French Partnership on Kaziranga Project

GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Conservation

Indo-French Partnership on Kaziranga Project


  • With French and Indian technical and financial support, the Indo-Pacific Parks Partnership will facilitate partnership activities for interesting natural parks of the Indo-Pacific region.
  • These activities include biodiversity conservation, wildlife management and engagement with local communities.

About The Kaziranga project,

  • The Kaziranga project is a part of a larger Assam Project on Forest and Biodiversity Conservation (APFBC) for which the Agence Française de Développement (AFD) has committed funding of €80.2 million for a 10-year period, between 2014-2024.
  • The project conceptualized the reforestation of 33,500 hectares of land and the training of 10,000 community members in alternate livelihoods by 2024.
  • Kaziranga National Park remains the heart of the program.
  • The AFD program has been most effective in the skilling of communities in the area, particularly forest-dwelling communities.
  • The Assam government has now begun a massive reforestation drive with the help of the AFD.
  • The project has also developed infrared-based early warning systems, triggered by elephant footfall, to either scare off herds from human habitat or to warn villagers.

About Kaziranga National Park

  • It is the largest undivided representative area of Brahmaputra valley floodplain grassland, a complex ecosystem of grassland, where various stages of biotic succession in the grassland ecosystem are explicit.
  • The Park is the abode of more than 70% of One Horned Rhinoceros in the world.
  • It is one of the oldest wildlife conservancy reserves of India, first notified in 1905 and constituted as a Reserved Forest in 1908.
  • It was declared a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1950, and notified as Kaziranga National Park in 1974 under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, of 1972.
  • It was declared a World Heritage Site back in 1985. It is recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International.

Source: The Indian Express

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