UPSC Courses

DNA banner


Monthly DNA

15 Aug, 2022

37 Min Read

NAMASTE Project for manual scavengers

GS-II : Government policies and interventions Government Schemes & Programmes

NAMASTE Project for manual scavengers

The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment is currently getting ready to conduct a statewide survey to count all people involved in dangerous sewer and septic tank cleaning, a practice that has resulted in at least 351 fatalities since 2017.

About NAMASTE Project

  • The National Action Plan for Mechanized Sanitation Ecosystem of the Union government includes an enumeration effort that will shortly be carried out throughout 500 AMRUT cities (NAMASTE).
  • The Self-Employment Scheme for the Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS), which was established in 2007, will eventually be merged with it and replaced. It will streamline the rehabilitation procedure for sanitation employees.
  • The MoSJ&E and the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs are working together on the NAMASTE program, which aims to end dangerous septic tank and sewer cleaning procedures.
  • Benefits under the program include interest subsidies on loans, where the government would pay the remaining interest and recipients' interest rates will be regulated at 4-6%, as well as capital subsidies of up to 5 lakh on sanitation equipment costing up to 15 lakh.
  • The plan also calls for training the workers to operate these devices, at which time they will get a stipend of up to $3,000 per month.
  • The program will also allow sanitation workers to train for and enter any of the alternative vocations on the approved list in industries including agriculture, services, electronics assembly, handicrafts, and so forth.

Concerns associated with manual scavenging

  • A subset of the Dalits, an outcast society commonly referred to as "untouchables" inside India's antiquated caste hierarchy, are mostly responsible for scavenging.
  • "Untouchables" are frequently food insecure, rejected by society, and not even allowed to touch other castes of Indians or their food.
  • Parts of India still have scavenging, mostly because of social prejudice and official disinterest.
  • In the urban policies created for the city by the state and private businesses, there is no planning at all for the upkeep of sewage, septic tanks, and waste disposal systems.
  • Over the past few years, there has been an upsurge in the frequency of fatalities related to septic tank and sewer cleaning.

Government Measures to Tackle Manual Scavenging

The Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act of 1993.

  • Pushing someone into manual scavenging was punishable by up to a year in prison and a Rs 2,000 fine.

Self-Employment Scheme for Manual Scavengers' 2017 Rehabilitation (SRMS);

  • With the aim of rehabilitating remaining manual scavengers and their dependents in alternative vocations in a time-bound manner, it is a successor program to the National Scheme for Liberation and Rehabilitation of Scavengers and Their Dependents.

Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013;

  • Any manual cleaning, carrying, discarding, or handling of human waste was prohibited by the Act.
  • According to the law, the National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK) would oversee the law's implementation and investigate complaints alleging that its terms have been broken.

2020 Amendment Bill

  • The proposed legislation would fully automate sewer cleaning, include measures for "on-site" safety, and compensate manual scavengers in the event of sewer fatalities.
  • Additionally, it will outlaw hiring workers to perform manual scavenging without safety equipment.

National Safai Karamcharis Commission;

  • The National Commission for Safai Karamcharis Act, 1993, an Act of Parliament, established it as a statutory body in 1994 for a term of three years, or up to March 31, 1997.

Rehabilitation Program for Manual Scavengers;

  • Except for one component, SRMS includes a one-time cash transfer of 40,000.

Mobile Swachhta app;

  • More manual scavengers have been targeted in several ways, including via the Swachhta mobile app.

The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) has given the Center a number of suggestions to halt manual scavenging, including:

  • The Center should lend the family members of manual scavengers Rs. 10 lakh so they can establish a business.

Sewer deaths should be tracked by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) in its reports.

  • The NHRC suggested creating a new regulation for hazardous cleaning or broadening the definition of manual scavenging to include other types of cleaning that pose a risk.

Supreme Court Instructions:

  • In 2014, the Supreme Court gave instructions on how to stop and restrict the practice as well as how to prosecute those who engage in it.
  • Additionally, it ordered the government to compensate the families of those who died in manual scavenging incidents since 1993 with a sum of Rs. 10 lakh.

Constitutional Protections

  • The Fundamental Rights guaranteed in Part III of the Constitution include the right to live in dignity.
  • On the other hand, Article 46 of the Constitution mandates that the State shall defend the weaker groups, in particular, the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, against social injustice and all types of exploitation.

Manual Scavenging & Sanitation workers

One of the most degrading and cruel types of sanitation work is called "manual scavenging," in which employees who clean unhygienic dry latrines, empty septic tanks, clean railroad tracks, etc., come into close contact with human waste without any protective equipment or other support measures.

Sanitation workers are those who do a variety of activities, including cleaning restrooms and public areas, emptying septic tanks, cleaning sewers, gathering, sorting, and disposing of various forms of garbage, managing sewage treatment facilities, etc.

Way forward

  • Manual scavenging is no longer practised in the nation since every single manual scavenger has been identified and engaged in the rehabilitation program.
  • Swachhta Udyami Yojana: Eventually, the plan is to connect these sanitation workers to Swachhta Udyami Yojana, where the employees will be able to purchase their own sanitation equipment and the government will oversee it at the municipal level.
  • The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan should prioritize expanding the sewer network and develop a plan for scientific maintenance that will replace manual septic tank cleaning.
  • To completely end hand scavenging, the laws should be strictly enforced.
  • There should be trials and testing of safety equipment as well as provisions for better healthcare facilities, insurance coverage, pension schemes, and rules on educating manual scavengers in preventive and social medicine.

Also Read - SMILE-75 Initiative

Source: PIB

All About Euthanasia

GS-II : Governance Human rights

All About Euthanasia

Recently, a Bengaluru lady went to the Delhi High Court to stop a friend's flight to Europe for euthanasia.


A petition submitted to the court claims that the man has had chronic fatigue syndrome since 2014 and that he intends to fly to Switzerland for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide, both of which are not legal for non-terminally ill people in India.

"Complex, incapacitating, long-term neuroinflammatory disease" describes chronic fatigue syndrome.

Case of Aruna Shanbaug: The Supreme Court of India (SC) addressed the debate over euthanasia, and in 2018 it issued a ruling that made the right to a dignified death a component of the right to life under Article 21.

Only passive euthanasia is currently permitted in India by the Supreme Court.

About Euthanasia

Ancient Greek words: "Eu" for "good" and "thantos" for "death."

Euthanasia can be classified into two categories based on the method of dying:

Positive Euthanasia or Aggressive Euthanasia:

  • Alludes to directly interfering with another person's life with the purpose to kill them. It is a direct action taken to put an end to a pointless life and existence.
  • For instance, by administering fatal dosages of a medicine or a lethal injection. Active euthanasia is typically a quicker way to bring about death, and all forms are prohibited.

Negative or non-aggressive euthanasia:

  • It is passive euthanasia. Failing to provide basic, routine care, food, and drink is purposefully causing death.
  • It involves turning off, uninstalling, or taking away artificial life support systems.
  • In general, passive euthanasia is slower and more uncomfortable than aggressive euthanasia.
  • Euthanasia is lawful in the majority of voluntary, passive, and non-voluntary, passive situations.

Rights, Cases & Legality in India

  • State of Maharashtra v. Maruti Shripati Dubal: Section 309 was invalidated and the right to life includes the freedom to die. In the matter of P. Rathinam v. Union of India, upheld by the SC.
  • Gian Kaur v. the State of Punjab: Contravened to earlier positions; no legal euthanasia.
  • Section 306 of the IPC outlines the penalties for assisting and abetting suicide.
  • Distinguished euthanasia from suicide in Naresh Maratra Sakhee v. Union of India.

Why Euthanasia?

  • End of Suffering: Euthanasia offers a solution to end a person's unbearably intense suffering. It spares those who are close to death from a protracted demise.
  • Respecting Person's Choice: The goal of human life is to live a dignified life, and it is against the person's choice to make them live in an undignified manner. As a result, it expresses a person's decision, which is a key value.
  • Providing care for others There is a paucity of money in many emerging and impoverished nations, including India. Hospital space is in short supply. Therefore, rather than sustaining the lives of individuals who desire to die, the energy of doctors and hospital beds might be used for those whose lives can be preserved.
  • Death with Dignity: Article 21 of the Indian Constitution expressly guarantees the right to a dignified life. A person has the right to live with at least the bare minimum of dignity, and if that standard is not being met, that person should be granted the option to end his life.
  • Addressing Mental Anguish: The intention is to assist rather than cause harm. It not only soothes the patient's excruciating pain but also spares the patient's loved ones from suffering psychologically.


  • Medical ethics: Medical ethics prohibit patient killing and promote nursing, caregiving, and healing. Even the most fatal diseases are now treatable because of the rapid advancement of medical technology. Therefore, medical professionals must encourage patients to live their difficult lives with strength rather than urging them to end their lives.
  • Moral Mistake: Morally and ethically, taking a life is wrong. Life has intrinsic value that cannot be discounted.
  • Groups who advocate for disabled people are opposed to the legalization of euthanasia on the grounds that such vulnerable populations may feel compelled to choose euthanasia because they may view themselves as a burden to society. Vulnerable will become more susceptible to it.
  • Euthanasia vs. Suicide: If euthanasia is prohibited, then suicide should be as well. When a person enters a depressive mood and loses all hope in life, they commit suicide. The situation when someone requests euthanasia is comparable. But by taking good care of these patients and having hope for them, this inclination might be diminished.
  • X-Factor: Miracles do happen in our society, especially when it involves life and death; there are cases of people emerging from comas years after they were placed there, and we must never forget that hope is the foundation of all human existence.

Global Status

  • England: Illegal and subject to a maximum sentence of life in prison.
  • Northern Territory in Australia was the first to legalize it in 1996. Most states have crime.
  • Albania: Legalized in 1999 with family members' approval.
  • 2002 saw legalization in Belgium.
  • The Netherlands was the first country in the world to allow assisted suicide and euthanasia in 2002.
  • Only passive euthanasia is permitted in Canada (The right to refuse life-sustaining treatments).

In the US, assisted suicide is lawful in Oregon and California but euthanasia is prohibited nationwide.

Way forward

Such a propensity should be lessened by giving sufficient care and spreading optimism.

To relieve patients' suffering and loved ones' suffering is sometimes reasonable.

Active voluntary euthanasia must be avoided since it can make murder simple.

Also, Read - NAMASTE Project for manual scavengers

Source: The Indian Express

Garuda Shield: deterrence against Chinese Encroachment

GS-II : International Relations International issues

Garuda Shield as deterrence against Chinese Encroachment

On the Indonesian island of Sumatra, the United States, Indonesia, and other nations are participating in joint military drills.


  • Since 2009, Garuda Shield has been a yearly military exercise.
  • The 2022 edition will be the biggest one due to the participation of numerous other nations, including Australia and Japan.
  • A total of more than 5,000 personnel from the US, Indonesia, Australia, Japan, and Singapore are participating in this year's Super Garuda Shield exercises, making them the largest since they began in 2009. The expanded drills are seen by China as a threat.
  • The United Kingdom, Canada, France, India, Malaysia, South Korea, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and East Timor also sent observers to the exercises, which began early this month.
  • The drills include those for the army, navy, air force, and marines.
  • Its goal is to support a free and open Indo-Pacific by enhancing capability, interoperability, trust, and cooperation.


  • Chinese has accused the US of building an Indo-Pacific alliance similar to NATO to limit China's growing military and diplomatic influence in the region.
  • The 14 nations involved in the training are signalling their stronger ties as China grows increasingly assertive in claiming virtually the entire South China Sea and holds exercises threatening self-ruled Taiwan.
  • China claimed part of Indonesia's exclusive economic zone in the northern region of the Natuna Islands. Jakarta has expressed concern about what it sees as Chinese encroachment in its exclusive economic zone in the South China Sea
  • Indonesia sees the current exercises with the US as a deterrent in defence of the Natuna Islands, the drills are part of efforts to forge a united front against China's military buildup in the South China Sea.

Also, Read - Aurobindo Ghose

Source: The Indian Express

Global Employment Trends for Youth: ILO

GS-III : Economic Issues Unemployment

Global Employment Trends for Youth: ILO

A report titled "Global Employment Trends for Youth 2022: Investing in transforming futures for young people" was just released by the International Labour Organization (ILO).

Findings related to India:

Youth Employment Decline:

  • Compared to its value is 2020, the youth employment participation rate fell by 0.9% over the first nine months of 2021, while it rose by 2% for adults over the same period.
  • For extremely young people between the ages of 15 and 20, the situation is particularly dire.

Low Young Female Employment:

  • In 2021 and 2022, young women in India lost more relative jobs than young men did.
  • In general, the high youth unemployment rates in India raise the average unemployment rates around the world.
  • The proportion of young Indian men in the global labour force is 16%, compared to barely 5% for young Indian women.

Online Education Gap:

  • Of the 24 crore school-going children, just 8% of those in rural areas and 23% of those in urban areas have adequate access to online education during the 18-month school closures.
  • The vast majority of children from socioeconomically disadvantaged homes, who have extremely unequal access to online resources, have essentially no access to schooling.

Learning Regression:

  • When schools are closed, children not only lose what they have already learned but also there is a phenomenon known as "learning regression."
  • In India, children lost an average of 92% of their language core skills and 82% of their math foundational skills.

Less Pay for Teachers:

  • According to the report, teachers in non-state schools are frequently paid much less than those in public schools.
  • Between one-eighth and one-half of what their peers in the state sector are paid, teachers in low-fee private schools in India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Pakistan are paid.

Domestic work is Very Informal:

  • In India, domestic employment is a highly informal industry, with extremely poor pay and a high risk of abuse for young women and girls.
  • Young domestic workers frequently report being abused, verbally and physically as well as sexually.

Findings related to the world:

  • Young men are nearly 1.5 times more likely than young women to be working, according to the Employment-to-Population ratio (EPR), which shows that young women have a substantially lower EPR than young men do.
  • In contrast to 40.3% of young males, just 27.4% of young women are expected to be employed globally in 2022.

Youth Employment and the Pandemic:

  • COVID-19 Since early 2020, those between the ages of 15 and 24 have faced a significantly larger percentage loss in employment than adults, which has been made worse by the pandemic.
  • Youth unemployment is predicted to reach 73 million globally in 2022, a little increase from 2021 but still six million higher than the pre-pandemic figure of 2019.

Regional Variations:

  • It is anticipated that the recovery in young unemployment will differ between low- and middle-income countries and high-income ones.
  • By the end of 2022, only high-income nations are predicted to have young unemployment rates that are comparable to those of 2019.
  • The rates are anticipated to stay more than 1% above their pre-crisis levels in the other country's income groups.

Green and blue economies have several advantages.

  • The growth of the so-called green and blue economies focused on the environment and sustainable ocean resources, respectively, was ideally positioned to help young people.
  • By 2030, investments in clean and renewable energy, sustainable transportation, and other green and blue industries could generate an additional 8.4 million jobs for young people.

Employment and Internet Coverage:

  • If everyone in the globe has access to broadband by 2030, there might be a net gain of 24 million new jobs, 6.4 million of which would go to young people.
  • 17.9 million more jobs for young people would be created through investments in the care sector by 2030.


  • The promotion of fair working conditions for all young employees must go hand in hand with investment in many areas.
  • It is important to guarantee that young workers have access to essential rights and protections like freedom of association, the right to collective bargaining, equal compensation for like-kind labour, and freedom from workplace violence and harassment.
  • Young people should have access to healthy labour markets with respectable employment possibilities for those already employed as well as options for high-quality education and training for those who have not yet entered the workforce.

What is the International Labor Organization?

It is the sole triangular United Nations agency. It brings together the governments, companies, and employees of its 187 member States, of which India is one, to set labour standards, create regulations and create programs that support fair pay for all workers, male and female.

  • It was a 1969 recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • Establishment: The Treaty of Versailles created the League of Nations Affiliated Agency in 1919.
  • Become the UN's first specialized affiliate agency in 1946.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland


  • World of Work Report
  • World Employment and Social Outlook Trends 2022
  • World Social Protection Report
  • Social Dialogue Report
  • Global Wage Report

Read Also - Garuda Shield: deterrence against Chinese Encroachment

Source: The Hindu

Aurobindo Ghose

GS-I : Modern History Personalities

Aurobindo Ghose

The 150th birth anniversary of Aurobindo Ghose will be observed on 15th August.

About Aurobindo Ghose

  • Often referred to as Yogi Rishi Aurobindo, this revolutionary, patriot, poet, educator, and philosopher was also well-known.
  • Date of birth: August 15, 1872.
  • When he was seven years old, his education was transferred to England.


  • Upon his return to India in 1893, he was appointed a state service officer.
  • He was a professor at Baroda College.
  • He also became a member of a revolutionary society and played a key role in the covert planning of an insurrection against the Indian government of the British.
  • In his journal Bande Mataram, he was the first Indian politician to openly advocate for the nation's total independence.
  • More than 20 years before the Indian National Congress' declaration of "Purna Swaraj" in 1930, he was its first advocate.

Literary works:

  • He was also a journalist and his first philosophical magazine called Arya was published in 1914.
  • Among his many writings are The Life Divine, The Synthesis of Yoga, and Savitri.
  • Death: Aurobindo Ghose died on December 5, 1950

Source: PIB

Other Related News

13 August,2022
Booster Dose: Corbevax

Booster Dose: Corbevax Image Source - The Financial Express According to a recent announcement from the Indian government, persons who have already taken Covishield or Covaxin as their first or second dosage of Covid-19 may take Corbevax as their third booster shot. Corbevax is still se

Digital Currency

Digital Currency Over 7% of India's population possessed digital currency in 2021, according to a recent report by the United Nations Trade and Development Body (UNCTAD). Additionally, India was rated eighth in terms of population ownership of digital currencies among the top 20 economie

India and Bangladesh Relationship

India and Bangladesh Relations Image Source - The Daily Guardian News: The 4th India-Bangladesh Annual Defence Dialogue, which was recently held in Delhi, decided to intensify the cooperation between the two-armed forces. Highlights Military training The discussions focused on

African ‘orphan’ Crop

African ‘orphan’ Crop Researchers recently discovered genes in the regional food crops of Africa that can increase drought tolerance. About Orphan crops               Orphan crops are wholesome regional fo

Butterfly Mine

Butterfly Mine The contentious "Butterfly Mine," an anti-personnel mine that is meant to prevent free movement of the soldiers along the enemy line, is said to have been used by Russia in the ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine. About       &

Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)

Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) The likelihood of above-average rainfall over much of Australia has increased due to a negative Indian Ocean dipole event that has been proclaimed. What is the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)? It is an atmosphere-ocean coupled phenomenon in the tropical Indian Ocean (

SMILE-75 Initiative

SMILE-75 Initiative To address the enduring issue of destitution and beggary, the Government of India has developed the comprehensive SMILE (Support for Marginalized Individuals for Livelihood and Enterprise) scheme. As part of the "SMILE-75" Initiative, 75 Municipal Corporations (MC

12 August,2022
Ethanol Plants

Ethanol Plants The Indian government declared on World Biofuel Day 2022, 10 August, that a second generation (2G) ethanol facility would be built at the Indian Oil Corporation's refinery in Haryana. Image Source - Regreen excel This ethanol plant will provide more money and green fuel w

Declining Mangrove Cover: NASA STUDY

Declining Mangrove Cover: NASA STUDY NASA recently brought attention to the disappearance of mangroves on Katchal Island, which is a part of India's Nicobar archipelago. Image Source - NASA.gov Findings Of NASA Mangrove loss: The study revealed how much of the world's

Amendments to Biodiversity Bill, 2021

Amendments to Biodiversity Bill, 2021 The Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill 2021 was recently the subject of an investigation by the Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC), which recently submitted its recommendations. Image Source - Journals of India The Ministry of Environment and Cl

Mid-day Meal Scheme

Mid-day Meal Scheme There is recent proof that children who receive eggs as part of midday meals have a considerable boost in their growth, according to a study commissioned by the Karnataka government. Image source - Inshitsonindia About the recent study     &n


Search By Date

Newsletter Subscription
SMS Alerts

Important Links