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Monthly DNA

24 Jan, 2023

28 Min Read

Issues faced by Women in Sports 

GS-I : Social issues Women

Issues faced by Women in Sports

  • Brij Bhushan Sharan Singh, head of the WFI (Wrestling Federation of India), has recently been accused of sexual harassment by some athletes.
  • If WFI does not respond to the Sports Ministry's request for an explanation within 72 hours, the Ministry will move to take action against the Federation in accordance with the 2011 National Sports Development Code's provisions.

About allegation:

  • Between 2010 and 2020, the SAI (Sports Authority of India) received 45 complaints of sexual harassment, 29 of which were against coaches, according to RTI (Right to Information) Data.
  • In several of these incidents that were disclosed, the defendants received light sentences that included reassignment to a pitiful reduction in salary or pension.
  • Many of the cases have dragged on for years with no apparent resolution, and some have yet to see light at the end of the tunnel.
  • Germany's polls in 2021 raised the issue of sports violence. In May 2021, the Federal Parliament's Sports Committee held a public hearing on sexualized, physical, and emotional violence in sports.

Challenges faced by women in Sports:

Income disparity

  • Being paid half as much as or less than their male counterparts is the first obstacle that female athletes must overcome. Whatever the discipline, there are glaring differences in the earnings of male and female players. Even with prize money, this is true.

Commodification of women

  • On the field, just as in the streets, female athletes are objectified. Women are not seen as potential and talent-filled individuals, but rather as commodities displaying themselves for men's amusement by everyone from coaches to commentators to the audience.

Job insecurity

  • In addition to the fact that it appears unlikely for a female athlete in India to have a steady salary, there is also the unsettling issue of job security. Female athletes are occasionally forced to take on other jobs in order to supplement their income due to the limited financing that the teams and organisations receive for their training and equipment. They are unable to give their training and sport their full attention as a result, which frequently compels them to withdraw from the competition.

Lack of access

  • Without having access. 1.3 million fewer girls than males get the chance to participate in high school athletics. Girls must search elsewhere for sports because there isn't enough physical education in schools and there aren't many options for them to play in high school and college. These other sports may not exist or may be more expensive.

Safety and transportation issues:

  • Sports participants must have a location to practise, and for many females, especially those living in densely populated cities, that means walking through dangerous areas to get to facilities or being without transportation to reach facilities located miles away. A girl and her family may have no choice but to stay at home if a safe option, such as carpooling with other families, is unavailable.

Lack of positive role models:

  • Today's girls are constantly exposed to pictures of physical beauty rather than strong, independent female role models in sports. For some females, it's more vital to fit into the stereotype they're told to maintain than to stand out. Them can experience peer pressure at any age, and if it isn't countered by strong encouragement to engage in sports and healthy physical exercise, the outcomes could cause girls to stop trying entirely.

How might sports assist promote gender equality?

Sport has the potential to advance gender equality since it promotes balanced involvement (SDG Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all Achieve women and girls)

  • Women and girls can become more independent and take advantage of sport's positive effects on their health and psychosocial conditions through physical activity and sport.
  • Both men and women's physical and mental health can benefit from participating in sports.
  • Girls who participate in sports as teenagers and young adults had a 20% lower lifetime risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Women who participate in sports frequently have more educational and job options, which can result in more economic empowerment for them.
  • Sports engagement by women can influence society perceptions of women and their skills.
  • By witnessing women succeed in athletics, more women may be motivated to pursue their own ambitions and break down gender stereotypes about what women are capable of.


  • India's sports industry is still developing. An all-encompassing strategy ought to be used to quicken this pace of development. Infrastructure development, talent spotting for sports, regular sports event planning, and grassroots awareness raising are all necessary.

Source: Indian Express

Ahom Burial Mounds in Assam

GS-I : Art and Culture World heritage site

Ahom Burial Mounds in Assam

  • The Charaideo Maidams in Assam has just been selected as a candidate for the UNESCO World Heritage Center by the Union Government.

More on the news:

  • From among the 52 locations across the nation seeking for the World Heritage Site tag, The Prime Minister chose Maidams mound burial site of Assam.
  • A team of the UNESCO National Heritage Committee would visit Assam in September to inspect the Maidams and take a decision in March next year.
  • There are two categories of nomination – cultural sites and natural sites. The Maidams will be nominated in the category of cultural sites.
  • India has 40 World Heritage Sites – 32 of them cultural sites, seven natural sites and one mixed site. Assam’s Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park are among the seven natural sites. Currently, there is no World Heritage Site in the category of cultural heritage in the Northeast.

About Charaideo Maidams:

  • The Charaideo Maidams of Assam are the Ahom equivalent of the pyramids of ancient Egypt.
  • The maidams stand in for the Tai Ahom community of Assam's late mediaeval mound burial practise (13th–19th century CE).
  • The members of the Ahom royal family's mortal bones, which were previously interred alongside their personal effects, are now preserved by the Charaideo Maidams.
  • 90 royal burials at Charaideo are the best preserved, most representative, and complete instances of the mound burial tradition of the Ahoms out of the 386 Maidams or Moidams that have been discovered so far.
  • The Ahom kings adopted cremation after the 18th century and started burying the cremated remains in a Maidam at Charaideo.
  • Importance: The Northeast does not currently have any cultural heritage listed as in the World Heritage Sites.
  • When the nation is commemorating Lachit Barphukan's 400th birthday, the nomination of the Charaideo Maidams has gained prominence.

About Ahom Kingdom:

  • In 1253, Chao Lung Siu-Ka-Pha established the Ahom dynasty.
  • Up until the British annexation of Assam in 1826, the Ahom dynasty ruled for around 600 years.
  • The Ahom dynasty's first capital was Charaideo, located more than 400 kilometres east of Guwahati.

Source: The Hindu

Prison Reforms

GS-II : Governance Police reforms

Prison Reforms

During the annual police meeting in New Delhi, Prime Minister proposed prison reforms.

What were the Prime Minister's Speech's Main Highlights?

  • He made a point of highlighting the value of the National Data Governance Framework for facilitating smooth data interchange between agencies.
  • Additionally, developing the police forces' sensitivity and giving them training in cutting-edge technology
  • He discussed using technological tools like biometrics and other similar ones as well as the requirement to further improve established policing practises like foot patrols.
  • Additionally, he emphasised the need for improved collaboration between the State Police and Central Agencies in order to take advantage of their combined skills and share best practises at the State and district levels, replicating the DGsP/IGsP Conference model for team discussions of new challenges and developing best practises.
  • Strengthening of border and coastal security by regular official visits to these areas

About Imprisonment:

  • The process of criminal justice ends with imprisonment. It simply refers to restricting someone's freedom as retribution for a crime they may have committed.

What is the state of Indian prison administration?

  • The management of prisons is a crucial facet of the criminal justice system. In the past century, the way society views convicts has undergone a fundamental shift.
  • With a shift in the way society views jail and convicts, the previous penal system, which involved forcibly confining inmates and depriving them of their freedoms as a form of punishment, has been altered.
  • It is now regarded as a correctional or improvement centre, which shows that reforming criminals is given more priority than punishing them.
  • The government organisations that uphold the law, decide on criminal cases, and deter illegal behaviour make up the Indian Criminal Justice System.

Prison problems in India:

  • According to 2021 statistics from the National Crime Records Bureau, there were 5,54,034 inmates nationwide, compared to a 4,25,609 capacity. 77% of the 5.54 lakh prisoners in India are awaiting trial, which contributes to the congestion.
  • 11,490 prisoners had served more than five years in prison without being found guilty.
  • According to the NCRB's jail statistics for 2021, there were 130% of available beds occupied, an increase of 12% from the year before.
  • The occupancy rate reached 185% in the states of Uttarakhand and UP.
  • Criminal laws that are out of date and irrational: In 2021, there were over 10% of prisoners who were awaiting trial for rape and dowry deaths. Both offences are terrible crimes that demand harsh penalties. Laws against sexual assault, however, do not distinguish between rape and forged marriage proposals.
  • Anti-dowry laws are written such that police can make several arrests for a single offence.
  • For offences involving alcohol and drugs, almost 25% of undertrials in 2021 were jailed under special and municipal regulations. Irrational prohibition policies frequently result in the long-term incarceration of less fortunate populations.
  • Ineffective legal aid: Lawyers in India are underpaid and frequently overworked. Lack of assistance causes the most suffering for the most vulnerable groups in society.
  • Indian prisons are in appalling condition: There is not enough room, there is inadequate ventilation, there is bad sanitation, and there is poor hygiene.
  • Lack of staff: There is an approximate 1:7 staff-to-inmate ratio in prisons, which encourages widespread violence and other criminal activity there.
  • Because it was established by the British to subjugate political inmates, India's prison system is prone to abuse. Prisoners frequently experience sexual abuse, in addition to being subjected to inhumane physical and psychological torture.
  • Custodial deaths: In 2015, there were 1,584 deaths in custody, mostly as a result of violence in the prisons.
  • Discrimination against inmates who are socioeconomically disadvantaged: According to Human Rights Watch, there is a "strict" class system in Indian prisons, which is harming the disadvantaged classes.
  • Inadequate security measures: Inmates frequently engage in violence against one other, which results in harm and, in some cases, death.
  • Lack of mental healthcare: India frequently ignores the mental suffering that occurs in jails as a result of the physical and psychological abuse that occurs there. Prisoner medical care is lacking.

International Standards For Prison Law:

  • All those who have been deprived of their freedom must be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent worth of every person.
  • Unless there are special circumstances, accused persons must be kept apart from those who have been found guilty and must receive care unique to those who have not yet been found guilty;
  • Juvenile suspects must be kept apart from adults and brought to court as soon as practicable.
  • The primary goals of treating convicts in the penal system are their reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile criminals must be kept apart from adults and treated according to their age and legal standing.

The Supreme Court maintained three guidelines for detention and imprisonment:

  • A person in prison does not become a non-person.
  • Within the confines of incarceration, every human right belongs to a prisoner.
  • There is no justification for adding to the anguish that is already present during the detention process.

Indian legislation pertaining to prisons:

  • The Prisons Act of 1894 is more concerned with maintaining order within than it is with reforming and rehabilitating inmates.
  • The Transfer of Prisoners Act of 1950 allows for the transfer of inmates from one State to another.
  • Legal service Authority Act, 1987: The Act was passed to ensure that opportunities to obtain justice are not denied to any citizen because of their economic circumstances or other disabilities. It also aims to organise Lok Adalats to ensure that the functioning of the legal system promotes justice on the basis of equal opportunity.
  • The Government of India passed the Repatriation of Prisoners Act in 2003 with the goal of assisting foreign inmates who are being held in Indian jails or vice versa in getting their remaining sentences served close to their family in order to aid them in their journey of social rehabilitation.


In its 268th report, the Law Commission of India made the following recommendations regarding prison reforms:

  • The Commission suggested that persons arrested for crimes carrying sentences of up to seven years in prison be freed after serving one-third of that time and those accused of crimes carrying lengthier sentences be released after serving half of that time.
  • Additionally, it was advised that the magistrates should not issue mechanical remand orders and that the police should avoid making unnecessary arrests.

Recommendations of the Justice Amitava Roy Committee:

  • Amitava Roy, a former judge of the Supreme Court, will serve as the chairman of the three-person committee that the Supreme Court established in 2018 to study jail reforms nationwide and give suggestions on a variety of issues, including prison overpopulation.
  • Establishing specialised fast-track courts to handle just minor offences that have been pending for more than five years is necessary.
  • Additionally, those who have been charged with minor crimes and have been granted bail but are unable to secure surety should be freed on a Personal Recognizance (PR) Bond.
  • Establishing a National Mission for legal reforms and justice delivery.

Mulla Committee suggested:

  • Formed in 1983, it recommended a National Prison Commission to be established to oversee the renovation of the jails in India.
  • Youthful offenders and experienced criminals are separated in prison.
  • Establishing a thorough and protective legal framework to ensure the safety and welfare of children.
  • A psychiatric hospital should be used to house mentally sick prisoners.
  • Making proper provisions for food, cleanliness, ventilation, etc. to improve the conditions within the prison.
  • Undertrials and convicted inmates ought to be kept apart.

1987 Krishna Iyer Committee recommended:

  • The committee required an assessment of the circumstances facing women prisoners nationwide.
  • It is advised that more women be hired as police officers to deal with female and juvenile offenders.

Indian government initiatives for prison reform:

  • Prison modernization programme: launched in 2002–2003 with the goal of enhancing the situation of jails, prisons, and inmates.
  • The goal of the e-Prisons Project is to increase efficiency in jail administration through digitization.
  • Open Prisons: In 1980, the All-India Committee on Jail Reform suggested that open prisons be established in all of the states and UTs.
  • Introduced in 2016 to replace the current prison manual, the model prison manual The guidebook addresses topics such as human rights, prisoner reintegration into society, female inmates' rights, legislation governing prison inspection, and the right to education even for those on death row.

Way Forward

  • Making Prisons and Correctional Facilities Better: Only when the issues of unrealistically low budgetary allocation, high workloads, and the police's disregard for procedural safeguards are resolved will the ideal policy prescription of turning prisons into places of rehabilitation and "correctional institutions" be realised.
  • One of the finest methods to address the unjustifiable occurrence of overcrowding is swift trial.
  • Currently, there isn't at least one lawyer for every 30 convicts, which is not enough.
  • Establishing specialised fast-track courts to handle just minor offences that have been pending for more than five years is necessary

Source: The Hindu

Hakku Patra

GS-II : Indian Polity SC/ST

Hakku Patra

  • Five families from the Banjara (Lambani) clan received Hakku Patra (land title deeds) from the Prime Minister in a symbolic ceremony in Malkhed, in the Karnataka district of Kalaburagi. The ceremony was organised by the State Revenue Department.
  • The Banjaras are a significant scheduled caste sub-group in Karnataka, despite the fact that given the way they live, they are viewed as a tribal tribe.

What are title deeds or hakku patras?

  • The holder of a title deed is the legal owner of the property described in the document.
  • Owners can apply for bank loans using the title deeds as documentation.
  • Additionally, they will be permitted to purchase or sell property for which the government has issued a title deed.

About the Banjara people:

  • The words "banjara" and "vanj" both refer to trade and travel, respectively. Their language, Gorboli, has vocabulary from other languages.
  • These nomads ended up all over Asia and Europe and were an essential part of the supply chain for villages.
  • Many tribes, including the Banjaras, opposed the British attempts to annex their territory for plantations and recruit them as slave labour.
  • Banjaras, who have their origins in Rajasthan, currently reside in a number of States and go by a variety of names: in Rajasthan, they go by Gwar or Gwaraiya; in Andhra Pradesh, Lambada or Lambadi; in Karnataka, Lambani.
  • They are listed as different caterogories in the States as Vimukta Jati/denotified tribes, Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, Other Backward Class, and Scheduled Caste.

Source: Indian Express

National Girl Child Day

GS-II : Governance Policies and Programmes

National Girl Child Day

India observes National Girl Child Day on January 24 each year.

About National Girl Child Day:

  • The purpose of National Girl Child Day is to increase public awareness of the injustices, discrimination, and exploitation that girls suffer in society.
  • The Ministry of Women and Child Development originally established National Girl Child Day in 2008.
  • The major goals are to alter how society views females, reduce female feticide, and raise awareness of the declining sex ratio.

National Girl Child Day's goals:

  • National Girl Child Day is intended to raise awareness of the rights that girls possess, to provide them with equal opportunity to everyone else, to support the nation's girl children, and to do away with gender-based prejudices.
  • Additionally, it asks for raising awareness of the injustices that female children experience and educating people on the importance of educating girls.
  • The primary goals are to alter society's perception of girls, reduce female feticide, and raise awareness of the declining sex ratio.
  • In order to improve their standard of life in society, it also tries to elevate the girl's status.
  • Girls and women struggle greatly with gender discrimination throughout their lives.
  • It also strives to combat gender prejudices and support the nation's girl children.

Pradhan Mantri Rashtriya Bal Puraskar 2022:

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will virtually meet with recipients of Rashtriya Bal Puraskar on the occasion of National Girl Child Day and as part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav. The children's outstanding accomplishments will be recognised by the programme.
  • The award winners would attend the occasion from their district headquarters along with their parents and any interested district magistrates.

Issues Related to Girl Child:


  • Girls are urged to drop out of school early and are also increasingly involved in family chores.
  • According to a research by the International Centre for Research on Women, girls who have dropped out of school are 3.4 times more likely than those who are still enrolled to be married or to have a stable marriage.

Health and Mortality:

  • In India, discrimination against girls is a problem both inside the home and in the community. In India, inequality translates to uneven chances for women.
  • In India, females continue to have an 8.3% higher under-five mortality rate than boys. For males, this is 14% higher globally.

Female infanticide and foeticide:

  • Female foeticide is one of the most common crimes in India.
  • Strong son preference, the dowry custom, and the patrilineal requirement of an heir are the causes of female foeticide.
  • In the age range 0–6 years, the census of 2011 found the lowest sex ratio ever (914), with 3 million missing females, down from 78.8 million in 2001 to 75.8 million in 2011.

Government initiatives to carry out National Girl Child Day's goals:

The government has adopted a variety of measures in this regard, some of which were enumerated by the women and child development ministry.

  • Save the Girl Child,
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao,
  • Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
  • CBSE's Udaan Program
  • Free or reduced-cost education for girls,
  • Reservation for women in colleges and universities

Source: The Economic Times

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