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09 May, 2020

51 Min Read

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Paper Topics Subject
GS-II Dilution of labour laws- Factories(Amendment) Bill,2014
GS-III FAME – NATIONAL ELECTRONIC MOBILITY MISSION Economic Issues
Vehicle scrappage policy soon Economic Issues
A decent exchange-Barter System in Fiji Economic Issues
Lockdown air: less NO2, same PM2.5 and more urban ozone Biodiversity & Environment
After pharma, pesticide industry eyes make in India opportunity Economic Issues
PT Pointer China’s experimental spaceship works normally in orbit
3 drug regimen in Phase 2 trial for COVID-19
NTPC to provide Hydrogen Fuel Cell based electric buses and cars in Leh and Delhi Economic Issues
GS-II :
Dilution of labour laws- Factories(Amendment) Bill,2014

Dilution of labour laws

Introduction

At a time when everyone is awaiting an early end to the health and economic crisis caused by the global pandemic, the interests of labourers and workers are once again set to be sacrificed.

 

Labour Jurisdiction

 

Under the Constitution of India, Labour is a subject in the Concurrent List where both the Central & State Governments are competent to enact legislation subject to certain matters being reserved for the Centre

 

States diluting labour laws

It is amoral and perverse on the part of some States to address this need by granting sweeping exemptions from legal provisions aimed at protecting labourers and employees in factories, industries and other establishments.

1.  Madhya Pradesh has embarked on a plan to give a boost to business and industry by allowing units to be operated without many of the requirements of the Factories Act

a. Working hours may extend to 12 hours, instead of eight, and

b. Weekly duty up to 72 hours.

The State has used Section 5 of the Act, which permits exemption from its provisions for three months, in the hope that the Centre would approve such suspension for at least a thousand days.

Section 5 : However, this exemption can be given only during a ‘public emergency’, defined in a limited way as a threat to security due to war or external aggression.

2.  Uttar Pradesh has approved an ordinance suspending for three years all labour laws, save a few ones relating to the abolition of child and bonded labour, women employees, construction workers and payment of wages, besides compensation to workmen for accidents while on duty.

Reports suggest that several States are following their example in the name of boosting economic activity.

Changes in the manner in which labour laws operate in a State may require the Centre’s assent.

One hopes the Centre, which is pursuing a labour reform agenda through consolidated codes for wages, industrial relations and occupational safety, health and working conditions, would not readily agree to wholesale exemptions from legal safeguards and protections the law now affords to workers.

 

Section 5 of Factories Act,1948

Section 5 in The Factories Act, 1948. 5. Power to exempt the provisions of the Act during public emergency. For the purposes of this section “public emergency” means a grave emergency whereby the security of India or of any part of the territory thereof is threatened, whether by war or external aggression or internal disturbance

 

 

Factories (Amendment) Bill,2014

The Factories Act is a legislation that deals with safety, health and welfare of workers. The present Factories Act is applicable on factories (with electricity connection) with 20 workers and factories, without electricity, with 10 workers.

The government had introduced Factories (Amendment) Bill 2014 in Lok Sabha in August 2014. However, it did not come up for discussion as it was referred to a standing committee which presented its report in December 2014.

Objective of amendments:

  • Ease of doing business
  • Removing redundant provisions and incorporating new provisions in line with current conditions of factories and technology.
  • To do away with the ‘inspector raj.’

What are the amendments proposed?

  • The proposed law will apply to all factories that employ at least 40 workers
  • Registration of factories will also be made online and entrepreneurs will only have to submit a self-certified declaration on the safety, health and welfare standards of the factory to get approvals for setting up a factory
  • Apart from speeding up registration and compliance processes to help new entrepreneurs and start-ups, the proposed new Factories Act seeks to do away with the ‘inspector raj.’
  • To increase the level of competency of the inspectors, the labour ministry has proposed that only those with a minimum B.Tech degree can become inspectors and they can enter factory premises after specific written directions of the Chief Inspector.
  • However, the inspection could take place without prior consent if there is a complaint from any worker or for carrying out investigation into a reported accident. This has been proposed to remove the arbitrariness in inspection.
  • However, existing inspectors with five years of experience or more, and a degree or diploma on industrial safety will continue to be eligible to inspect a factory.
  • All factories that manufactures or deals with “hazardous substance and processes and dangerous operations will be covered under this Act even if they employ a single worker.” The sectors that manufacture hazardous processes include coal, gas, iron and steel, petroleum, cement and leather.
  • For setting up factories with hazardous activities, the site appraisal committee — a body with representatives from environment, meteorological, town planning departments — will have to convene a meeting within 15 days of receiving an application.
  • The committee will have to compulsorily send its recommendations within the next 30 days to the state government, from 90 days at present.
  • The proposed law will apply to all factories that employ at least 40 workers.

Why Factories Act,1948 need to be amended?

  • The legislation explicitly bars women from certain occupations like working “near or machinery in motion” and hence perpetuates gender inequality
  • Act stipulates Sunday as the weekly holiday and thus leads to situation where all factories work on the same days i.e. Monday to Saturday. In this situation, there is great demand for power. If authority is given to factory owner to decide their day of holiday, it can ease down the demands on certain days
  • The provision of providing cool drinking water applies to factories that employ more than 250 workers and hence factories with lesser workers do not enjoy such benefits
  • The law uses British systems of units i.e. horsepower instead of India’s metric system that use Kilo Watthours and hence creates confusion
  • Currently, the law requires entrepreneurs to inform authorities about the total rated horsepower installed before they can commence operations- a not so business friendly practice
  • Present law requires an employee to work for 240 days before he becomes eligible for leave with pay and hence the act is not employee friendly
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GS-III : Economic Issues
FAME – NATIONAL ELECTRONIC MOBILITY MISSION

FAME – NATIONAL ELECTRONIC MOBILITY MISSION

Part of: GS-III- Economy-Automobile (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)

Government of India notified FAME India Scheme [Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India] for implementation with effect from 1st April 2015, with the objective to support hybrid/electric vehicles market development and Manufacturing eco-system.

Objective

The FAME India Scheme is aimed at incentivising all vehicle segments i.e. 2 Wheeler, 3 Wheeler Auto, Passenger 4 Wheeler Vehicle, Light Commercial Vehicles and Buses. The scheme covers Hybrid & Electric technologies like Mild Hybrid, Strong Hybrid, Plug in Hybrid & Battery Electric Vehicles.

  • Monitoring Authority : Department of Heavy Industries
  • Fame India Scheme has four focus Areas.
    • Technology development
    • Demand Creation
    • Pilot Projects
    • Charging Infrastructure
  • Target: National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) has set a huge target to deploy 48 lakh 2W EVs and 15 lakh 4W EVs by 2020

Analysis of focus areas

  • Technology development: There are two types of technology related with FAME : Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

  • India has a scarcity of lithium and will have to rely on expensive imports to sustain a growing BEV industry as the lithium is the best battery technology and delivers high energy and high power.
  • Current battery technology is not mature enough to allow BEVs to compete with fossil fuel-based vehicles. As the energy efficiency capacity of BEVs is 100 times less than petrol and diesel vehicle, it provides low range per charge.
  • Another technical deficiency of BEVs is that their speed and acceleration is lower than conventional fuel-based vehicles because of the low power capacity  of batteries.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

An HEV has a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system plus an electric propulsion system consisting of a battery and a motor. This makes HEVs heavy and expensive. Therefore   as per the current technology it can only be used in light commercial vehicle.

Steps Under FAME  for technological development

  • Under the FAME-India scheme, a nodal body, the DHI-DST Inter-Ministerial Technology Advisory Group (IM-TAG) on Electric Mobility has been set up.
  • A few long-term projects are already underway under the auto-cess funded R&D programme.
  • A collaborative approach between the industry and academia is  envisaged, which would include government-funded as well as PPP projects.

Demand Creation

  • Incentive, in the form of discount,  are provided under FAME. The discount amount is about one-third of the difference between the price of an EV and a comparable petrol vehicle.

Pilot Projects

  • The phase 1 of FAME PROVIDED incentive to private vehicles.
  • The phase 2 of FAME will provide incentive for public transport in 10 cities. The outlay of ?10,000 crore has been made for three years till 2022 for FAME 2 scheme. The centre has sanctioned ?8,596 crore for incentives, of which ?1,000 crore has been earmarked for setting up charging stations for electric vehicles in India. The government will offer incentives for electric buses, three-wheelers and four-wheelers to be used for commercial purposes. Plug-in hybrid vehicles and those with a sizeable lithium-ion battery and electric motor will also be included in the scheme and fiscal support offered depending on the size of the battery.

Steps taken by Government

  • The government has to set up additional power generation infrastructure in order to make EVs more attractive.
  • Upcoming smart grids in India can play a significant role in improving the charging infrastructure. Smart grids can help in optimising electricity needs at peaking demand hours for utility purpose and for BEV charging. For example Bosch has set up one such infrastructure in Germany with Mobile connectivity to provide information.

Fame-2

Electric and hybrid vehicle (xEVs) manufacturers will have to indigenise a significant portion of components to avail benefits under a revised set of rules of the phase 2 of the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles, or FAME 2 scheme. In a first, detailed localization draft guidelines have been issued by the Department of Heavy Industry (DHI) putting out a list of key components for xEV manufacturers to localise with respective deadlines to avail the scheme across all approved vehicle categories.

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GS-III : Economic Issues
Vehicle scrappage policy soon

Vehicle scrappage policy soon

Part of: GS-III- Economy automobile (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)

The vehicle scrappage policy is likely to be finalised soon to boost the automobile sector. The Minister of Road Transport and Highways also said that his ministry has fixed a target to build highways worth ?15 lakh crore in the next two years.

Imp Points

  • The much-awaited vehicle scrappage policy is awaiting final clearance from the Union Cabinet, which will focus on eliminating the fleet of old polluting commercial vehicles plying on the country’s roads.
  • The proposed policy, once approved, will be applicable on all vehicles including two and three-wheelers.
  • Once the policy is approved, India could emerge as a hub for automobile manufacturing as key raw material available from scrapping like steel, aluminium and plastic are bound to be recycled, bringing down automobile prices by “20-30%“.
  • The government on July 26, 2019 had proposed amendments to motor vehicle norms to allow scrapping of vehicles older than 15 years in a bid to spur adoption of electrical vehicles.
  • In a draft notification, the government proposed renewal of fitness certificates for vehicles older than 15 years every six months instead of the current time-frame of one year.
  • The notification also provided that the newly purchased motor vehicles will be exempted for payment of fees for registration certificate and assignment of new registration mark, if the purchaser produces scrapping certificate of the previously-owned vehicle of the same category issued by the authorised scrapping centre/agency.

In May 2016, the government had floated a draft voluntary vehicle fleet modernisation programme (V-VMP) that proposed to take 28 million decade-old vehicles off the road. Mr. Gadkari said for highways, he has set a target of building ?15 lakh crore worth of roads in the next two years and added that the road construction pace has reached 30 km a day now. He also suggested exploring cheaper credits, including foreign capital for enhancing liquidity in the automobile manufacturing sector.
 

Automobile sector Analysis

This sector is hard hit by the liquidity crunch for non-banking financial companies (NBFCs) and a dip in consumer sentiment. Leading automobile manufacturers announced a sharp decline of up to 50 per cent in their domestic sales in recent months. Manufacturers are now going for cuts in production, and the industry that is one of the biggest job creators in the country is staring at a deep-rooted slowdown and job losses across its value chain.

Decline in Sales

Vehicle sales numbers in July, the worst in 19 years, have reaffirmed the downturn in the automobile sector. The drop is happening across all segments. If passenger vehicles sales witnessed a fall of 18.4 per cent in the quarter ended June 2019, the commercial vehicle segment witnessed a 16.6 per cent decline.

Decline in the sales of commercial vehicles and tractors

  • Tractor sales have been further hurt by weak farm sentiment, the slowdown in the rural economy, and fears of a worse than average monsoon this year.
  • This comes amid the third advance estimates of crop production indicating a slide in rabi production. Kharif sowing has remained weak so far.
  • Truck sales have been hurt by changes made by the government in the axle load norms.
  • A significant decline in the sales of commercial vehicles has been visible ever since the increased axle load has become effective.
  • The industry has been calling for a scrappage policy and other policy support measures to revive demand.

A sign of distress

  • Like tractors, the drop in two-wheeler volumes is a key indicator of rural distress.
  • In the two-wheeler segment, motorcycle sales are predominantly dependent on rural India; people in rural areas prefer motorcycles to scooters given their sturdier structure, better performance, and lower operational costs, especially in the economy segments.
  • The continued sluggishness in two-wheeler volumes is worrying, given that India, despite now being the world’s biggest two-wheeler market, still has a very low penetration level of two wheelers.

A cause of concern

  • Such a sales slump is naturally forcing automobile factories to cut production, with July alone witnessing a production decline of around 3 lakh vehicles compared to the same month last year.
  • This, in turn, means a loss of jobs for contract workers initially but if this slowdown deepens, then permanent workers too may be let go.
  • The automobile industry employs close to forty million people.
  • While such a widespread and progressive decline is a cause for concern on its own, the unravelling of India’s famed automobile industry should also send shockwaves across policy makers too.
  • The sector accounts for almost half the manufacturing GDP of India.

Causes for decline in sales

There are several reasons for the famed Indian automobile sector, fourth largest in the world, to experience this unprecedented slowdown.

  • First, the sector was impacted due to impending general elections, where uncertainty over outcome drove people to postpone vehicle purchases.
  • Industry insiders feel that the pressure on NBFCs and the liquidity squeeze in the market is a big factor causing the decline.
  • Say for example a third of the retail sales of a company were funded by NBFCs, and a liquidity crisis for the NBFC sector has led to a drop in sales for lack of funding for customers.
  • The decline in customer confidence is the other factor that is leading to a continuous slide in sales of passenger cars.
  • Customers are also expecting discounts in the coming festive season.
  • Customers are also postponing their purchase decisions due to various considerations, including an expected fall in GST rates, and the hope that the transition from BS-IV to BS-VI may lead to big discounts between January and March 2020.
  • To top it all, the face-off between the industry and the policymakers over a proposed deadline to convert some vehicle categories to electric from the present internal combustion engine (ICE) technology obviously did not help either.
  • The government has been considering a proposal to ban all ICE-driven two-wheelers under 150cc in the next six years and all three-wheelers within four years.

What does this situation indicate?

  • The sharp decline in sales numbers of the leading manufacturer shows the decline in consumer sentiment and indicates an overall slowdown in the economy.
  • The drop in sales over the last one year has led major manufacturers to cut production, and has put pressure on the overall automotive sector, including the automobile ancillaries.
  • Various manufacturing units of renowned brands have been shut in various parts of the country.
  • There have already been job losses across the value chain of the automobile sector, including in the dealerships and ancillaries.
  • The continuing decline in sales is now expected to put pressure on manufacturers to cut down on their costs, and reduce headcounts.

What next?

  • Industry players say the worst is still to come and that of consumer demand and the liquidity crisis — could get prolonged as automakers compulsorily transition to new technologies, rendering their products more expensive.
  • The outlook for the rest of the year will depend on multiple factors, including the progress of the monsoon and the festive season offtake, as well as improvement in the liquidity situation.
  • Meanwhile one may expect some sort of fiscal or monetary stimulus to boost up the sector.

 

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GS-III : Economic Issues
A decent exchange-Barter System in Fiji

A decent exchange

Introduction

Karl Marx thought, about a century-and-a-half ago, that society moved from primitive communism, through various forms and structures of inequality, to communism proper. Economic systems moved forward, resolving their contradictions and creating new ones. Turns out he was, at best, only half right.

Back to the earlier Economic system amidst COVID-19

Mediums of exchange with fictional value — money, in all its forms and abstractions — are premised on a leap of faith.

People accept the “promise to pay the bearer” from a distant authority, and lives, communities, economies and civilisations are built on this trust.

But when the system isn’t enough, and the margins swell enough to flood the entire system, a different, more relatable form of exchange comes into place.

In Fiji, and many other Pacific Island nations, COVID-19 has forced a return to the barter system.

In epidemiological terms, the region has been relatively less affected by the pandemic: At the end of April, only six Pacific countries and territories between them have reported 260 cases and seven deaths.

Yet, over 10 per cent of Fiji’s population — 1,00,000 people — are active on a Facebook group called “Barter for a Better Fiji”. Similar groups have cropped up in Tonga, Samoa and Vanuatu.

The tourism sector in the region is devastated, and people are out of work.

Yet, in the absence of money, many are sustaining themselves through work, and the dignity of social exchanges that engenders.

 

What is a Barter System?

 

A barter system is an old method of exchange. Th is system has been used for centuries and long before money was invented. People exchanged services and goods for other services and goods in return. Today, bartering has made a comeback using techniques that are more sophisticated to aid in trading; for instance, the Internet. In ancient times, this system involved people in the same area, however today bartering is global. The value of bartering items can be negotiated with the other party. Bartering doesn't involve money which is one of the advantages. You can buy items by exchanging an item you have but no longer want or need. Generally, trading in this manner is done through Online auctions and swap markets.

 

 

How the barter system can work in 21st century?

Labour — whether you’re a carpenter, teacher or accountant — can be exchanged for meat, food and other commodities.

Professional photography lessons are being exchanged for food.

The idea behind this network of exchanges is simple: An economic crisis need not descend to a humanitarian one.

Thinking of what each member of society can offer, and negotiating the value of that good/service might not lead to a Utopian ideal of equality.

But as the world struggles to treat people with decency amid a pandemic, it is at least a more moral equilibrium.

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GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment
Lockdown air: less NO2, same PM2.5 and more urban ozone

Lockdown air: less NO2, same PM2.5 and more urban ozone

Introduction

While traffic pollution has been falling, the lockdown may be leading to the generation of a dangerous pollutant, urban ozone, which can cause airway inflammation in humans.

The research is specific to the UK. It has been conducted by experts from The University of Manchester.

Nitrogen oxides

Levels of nitrogen oxides were found reduced in most locations in the UK during mid-March and April. The level of decline ranges from 20% to 80 %.

Levels of nitrogen oxides fall less in rural areas than urban areas; and they are higher in the morning than compared to later in the day.

PM2.5

There was no evidence of a decrease in PM2.5. These particle are produced by vehicles, they are also known to originate from domestic wood burning and chemical reactions involving emissions from industry and agriculture, so there has been no significant improvement in air quality in that regard.

Urban ozone

The Manchester team speculated that photochemical production of ozone may become more important in urban areas during summertime in these low conditions of oxides of nitrogen.

As nitrogen oxides reduce, photochemical production may become more efficient and can lead to higher ozone concentrations in the summertime as higher temperatures increase emissions of biogenic hydrocarbon from natural sources such as trees.

These biogenic hydrocarbons significantly affect urban ozone levels.

While ozone is important for screening harmful solar UV radiation when present higher up in the atmosphere, it can be a dangerous at the Earth’s surface, and can react to destroy or alter many biological molecules.

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GS-III : Economic Issues
After pharma, pesticide industry eyes make in India opportunity

After pharma, pesticide industry eyes make in India opportunity

The big opportunity the Indian industry has to undertake is manufacturing of active ingredients that are scheduled to lose patent protection in the next few years. While the focus has been on pharmaceuticals, the issue of “Chinese dependence” is coming to the fore, especially post Covid-19, also in pesticides.

India’s imports of crop protection chemicals – mainly the technical material or active ingredients that go into making end-use formulations – stood at Rs 9,266.84 crore in 2018-19, most of it coming from China (Rs 4,904.28 crore), US (Rs 1,050.69 crore) and Germany (Rs 614.53 crore). “Just as in pharma, the government should encourage backward integration by our industry to reduce excessive reliance on imports of technicals, particularly from China,” says experts The Rs 1,250-crore annual sales company – along with UPL, Gharda Chemicals, PI Industries, Meghmani Organics, Indofil Industries, Coromandel International and NACL Industries (formerly Nagarjuna Agrichem) – is among the few major domestic manufacturers of technical grade pesticides. These company manufactures technical-grade products that include herbicides (bispyribac-sodium, pretilachlor and atrazine), insecticides (lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin and thiamethoxam) and fungicides (thiophanate methyl). (PT)

Significantly, India, in 2018-19, exported crop protection chemicals worth Rs 22,090.18 crore, a large part of it to Brazil (Rs 4,314.74 crore) and the US (Rs 4,238.63 crore). “

 

The one big opportunity the Indian industry has is to undertake manufacturing of active ingredients that are scheduled to lose patent protection in the next few years. These include chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole (both blockbuster insecticides of DuPont sold to FMC Corporation of US in 2017, while marketed under ‘Coragen’ and ‘Benavia’ brands, with their patents expiring in 2022 and 2024, respectively), flubendiamide (insecticide molecule of Bayer CropScience sold under ‘Fame’ brand and just gone off-patent) and fluopyram (fungicide, also of Bayer and marketed as ‘Luna’, with patent expiry in 2024).

“The multinationals that have developed these active ingredients simply import them now. The government should speed up the process of granting registration for their manufacture by domestic companies once they have become generic chemicals,” Potential manufacturers are permitted to reverse-engineer proprietary crop protection products even during their period of patent protection. They can further carry out bio-efficacy and residue trials (in soil, water and plants under different agro-climatic conditions), apart from toxicology studies on their proposed generic version. All this data, including information of packaging/labeling and shelf-life, has to be submitted to the Central Insecticides Board and Registration Committee in the Union Agriculture Ministry.

“The problem today is that even after the data is submitted, the grant of registration takes inordinately long time. As a result, we cannot launch any product that has gone off-patent and make it immediately available to farmers at a more competitive rate. Since the registration process is so slow, it discourages domestic manufacturing and India ends up being a large-scale importer of technical material from China, the ultimate loser is the farmer.

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GS-III :
China’s experimental spaceship works normally in orbit

China’s experimental spaceship works normally in orbit

China's new-generation spaceship launched earlier in the week is working normally in orbit after completing a series of planned operations

The experimental spaceship was launched without crew by China's new large carrier rocket Long March-5B from the Wenchang Space Launch Centre in Hainan. So far, the new spaceship has unfolded its solar panels and positioned them towards the sun, deployed its relay antenna and established a relay communication link, as well as conducted autonomous orbit control four times

It is scheduled to touch down at the Dongfeng landing site in north China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. China initiated the manned space programme in 1992. In recent years, it has emerged as a major space power with manned space missions and landing a rover in the dark side of the moon. It is currently building a space station of its own expected to be ready by 2022.

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GS-III :
3 drug regimen in Phase 2 trial for COVID-19

Phase-2 trial with three drugs offers hope

Introduction

A phase-2 trial involving participants with mild to moderate coronavirus (COVID-19) illness found no detectable virus within an average seven days of starting treatment with a three-drug regimen compared with 12 days in people in the control group.

Samples tested for the virus comprised nasopharyngeal swab, posterior oropharyngeal saliva, throat swab, and stool samples.

Clinical Improvement

Clinical improvement was also significantly better in those who received the three-drug regimen. Complete alleviation of symptoms was achieved in four days in the intervention group and eight days in the control group. The average hospital stay was also significantly shorter (nine days) in participants who received the three-drug therapy than in the control group (14.5 days). The three-drug regimen was found to be safe.

The three drugs used are:

Lopinavir-ritonavir is used for treating HIV, ribavirin for treating chronic hepatitis C virus, and injectable interferon beta-1b is used by multiple sclerosis patients.

The researchers had earlier demonstrated that a combination of lopinavir–ritonavir and ribavirin significantly reduced mortality and respiratory failure in patients during the 2003 SARS outbreak.

And interferon beta-1b has previously been shown to reduce viral load and improve lung problems in animal studies of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection.

 

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GS-III : Economic Issues
NTPC to provide Hydrogen Fuel Cell based electric buses and cars in Leh and Delhi

NTPC to provide Hydrogen Fuel Cell based electric buses and cars in Leh and Delhi

National Thermal Power Corporation Limited (NTPC) has invited Global Expression of Interest (EoI) to provide 10 Hydrogen Fuel Cell (FC) based electric buses and an equal number of Hydrogen Fuel Cell based electric cars in Leh and Delhi. 

The EoI has been issued by NTPC's wholly owned subsidiary, NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam LIMITED. The move to procure Hydrogen Fuel Cell based vehicles is first of its kind project in the country, wherein a complete solution from green energy to the fuel cell vehicle will be developed.

The initiative, which has been undertaken with the support of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, will also harness renewable energy for generation of hydrogen and develop it's storage and dispensation facilities as part of pilot projects at Leh and Delhi. The move to launch hydrogen powered vehicles aims at decarbonizing mobility segment. 

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