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31 Aug, 2022

46 Min Read

maritime security india upsc

GS-II : International Relations Maritime security

Maritime Security

Image Source - Deepstrate

The recent Chinese satellite and missile tracking ship, the Yuan Wang 5, in Hambantota Port, was brought up by Sri Lanka's envoy to India, who suggested that India and Sri Lanka establish a framework to discuss marine issues.

Yuan Wang 5

  • It is a ship from the Yuan Wang series' third generation, and it went into service in 2007.
  • "Space tracking ships active in aiding the human space program" are among the vessels in this class.
  • Satellites and intercontinental missiles can be tracked using it.

Hambantota Port

  • A Public Private Partnership and Strategic Development Project between the Government of Sri Lanka and China Merchants Port Holdings is the Hambantota International Port Group (CMPort).
  • After Sri Lanka failed to pay back Chinese loans, China was given this port by Sri Lanka on a 99-year lease.
  • It is considered a case of Chinese diplomacy that is in a "debt trap."

Maritime Security in India

  • There is no widely accepted definition of maritime security.
  • National security, the marine environment, economic development, and human security are all included in its classification of maritime-related issues.
  • It deals with regional seas, territorial waters, rivers, and ports in addition to the world's oceans.


  • Maritime security is extremely important to global society because of issues like the smuggling of weapons, illegal immigration, and at-sea piracy.
  • Threats from terrorism and environmental disasters are also covered.
  • Given that India has a coastline that extends for more than 7,500 kilometres, marine security is a crucial component of national security.
  • Physical hazards in the marine region are no longer as prevalent as they once were due to technological advancements.
  • The majority of India’s exports and imports, approx. 90% have continued to travel through the Indian Ocean. As a result, protecting Sea Lanes of Communication (SLOCs) has become crucial for India in the twenty-first century.

Chinese influence

  • Shiyan 1, a Chinese research vessel, was spotted in 2019 close to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • China dispatched a Yuan Wang class research ship into the Indian Ocean in August 2020, in the midst of the ongoing fighting in eastern Ladakh on the Sino-Indian border.

India’s Initiatives for Maritime Security

Security and Growth for All (SAGAR) Policy:

  • The Indian Prime Minister introduced the SAGAR policy during a trip to Mauritius in March 2015. It is an integrated regional framework. India's function as an Internet security provider in the Indian Ocean region is one of SAGAR's cornerstones (IOR).
  • India would keep boosting the IOR-friendly nations' economic resilience and maritime security capabilities.
  • A more connected and collaborative approach to the IOR's future would improve the chances for the long-term growth of all the region's nations.
  • Those "who reside in this territory" would bear the primary duty of ensuring peace, stability, and prosperity in the IOR.

Mission Sagar:

  • Launched in May 2020, "Mission Sagar" was an endeavour by India to provide help to the nations in the Indian Ocean Littoral States relating to Covid-19. Maldives, Mauritius, Madagascar, Comoros, and Seychelles were among the nations included.
  • The Indian Navy has been deploying its ships as part of "Mission Sagar" to deliver medical and humanitarian aid to the nations in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) and beyond.

Respecting international law:

  • In the maritime border arbitration between India and Bangladesh, India accepted the ruling of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) tribunal.
  • It envisioned giving the littoral states of the Bay of Bengal a fresh impetus for efficient international economic cooperation (BIMSTEC).

Data Exchange:

  • Improving maritime security requires the exchange of data on threats to commercial shipping.
  • In this regard, India opened an International Fusion Centre (IFC) in Gurugram in 2018 for the Indian Ocean region.
  • The Indian Navy and Indian Coast Guard jointly manage IFC.
  • The goal of IFC is to create Maritime Domain Awareness regarding safety and security issues.

Way ahead

  • India to Adopt Multi-Pronged Approach: India will need to take a multipronged approach that includes infrastructural and technology-related issues in addition to a strong military plan to challenge China.
  • India must retain its dominance and assertiveness in the Indian Ocean to prevent China from operating in areas that are important to India.
  • Given that China is the most unstable and sensitive in the Pacific region, India must work with its allies and strengthen its relationships in order to acquire influence there.
  • India's maritime policy must be paired with those of China.

Also, Read - Exercise VAJRA PRAHAR

Source: The Indian Express

Withdrawing the general consent to the CBI

GS-II : Indian Polity Central Bureau of Investigation

Withdrawing the general consent to the CBI

Recently, the newly elected government of Bihar demanded that the CBI's general consent be revoked.


  • In the case of Bihar, the recently elected state administration claimed that the federal government was politicizing the CBI.
  • The chief minister of Bihar further said that similar abuses are occurring in federal authorities like the CBI, ED, and Income Tax Department.
  • Nine states, including West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Punjab, and Meghalaya, have revoked their general approval of the Central Bureau of Investigation's (CBI) investigation of cases within their borders.
  • All states asserted that the federal government was utilizing the CBI to unfairly target the opposition at the time of withdrawing approval.

Views of the CJI

The CBI's credibility has recently been under intense public criticism as a result of its actions and inactions in some cases, according to recent comments made by the Chief Justice of India.

What is general consent??

  • The Delhi Special Police Establishment (DSPE) Act, passed in 1946, governs the CBI.
  • Before starting to look into a crime in a state, it is required to have the permission of the relevant state government.
  • Nothing in Section 5 ("Extension of powers and jurisdiction of special police establishment to other areas") shall be construed to give any member of the Delhi Special Police Establishment the right to exercise powers and jurisdiction in any area of a State, which is not a Union territory or railway area, without the consent of the Government of that State.

State's approval

  • The state government may approve CBI on a case-by-case basis or generally.
  • States typically provide the CBI general permission to investigate corruption charges involving central government personnel in their states.
  • This is consent by implication; otherwise, the CBI would have to request permission from the state government in every situation and before taking even minor steps.
  • Contrary to the National Investigation Agency (NIA), which is controlled by the NIA Act, 2008 and has national authority, the CBI's status is distinct from that of the NIA in this regard.

Consequences of the general consent withdrawal

No new cases are being registered:

  • This means that without the state government's approval, the CBI will be unable to open any new cases involving central government officials or private citizens in the state.
  • Unless the state government has given them permission, CBI officials immediately lose all of their police officer privileges when they enter the state.

Other issues Faced by CBI

  • Changes made to the 1988 Prevention of Corruption Act in 2018:
  • The Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 has been amended in 2018, and as a result, the Centre now has legal as well as administrative control over the CBI.
  • Amendments to Section 17A of the Act that the government pushed through Parliament require the CBI to have the Center's approval before filing a case of corruption against any government employee.
  • Previously, the Centre had decreed that only officials with the rank of joint secretary or higher were necessary to get such clearance.
  • After the Supreme Court invalidated the government order, the adjustments were made.
  • According to the 2018 amendment, the agency can essentially only look into the officers that the current administration wants looked into.
  • Changes made to the 1988 Prevention of Corruption Act in 2018:


  • Over 40% fewer corruption cases were reported to the CBI between 2017 and 2019.
  • The Indian Chief Justice cited a number of problems that were harming the system

General problems:

  • Lack of infrastructure, enough personnel, and current equipment; inhumane working conditions, particularly for the lowest-ranking employees; dubious techniques of gathering evidence; police who don't follow the rules; and a lack of accountability for negligent cops.
  • Lack of public prosecutors and standing counsels, requests for adjournments, calling hundreds of witnesses and filing voluminous documents in ongoing trials, unjustly imprisoning defendants awaiting trial, changes in priorities brought on by changes in the political executive, cherry-picking of evidence, and repeated transfers of officers that changed the focus of the investigation were the problems that caused delays in trials.
  • These problems frequently result in the innocent being imprisoned and the guilty being exonerated.
  • The courts cannot merely oversee each step because this has a significant negative impact on the public's trust in the system.

Way ahead

  • The establishment of an independent umbrella institution is urgently required to consolidate multiple central agencies, such as the CBI, the Enforcement Directorate, and the Serious Fraud Investigation Office, under one roof.
  • This organization must be established by a statute that outlines all of its responsibilities and authority.
  • Independence: A commission similar to the one that selected the CBI Director should designate an independent and unbiased authority to lead the organization.
  • Its leader might receive assistance from deputies with different areas of expertise.
  • Connection between the State and Central Agencies: Given that the purpose of all those organizations is to secure justice, there should be a harmonious relationship between the State and Central Agencies, and collaboration was the key.
  • Knowledge improvement: To learn the best practices, there is a need for ongoing knowledge improvement, the use of cutting-edge technologies, and international exchange programs.
  • There needs to be a clear definition of the CBI's role, authority, and legal responsibilities.

About Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

  • It is India's top investigative police force.
  • The Special Police Establishment, which was founded in 1941 to look into bribery and corruption during World War II, is where it all began.
  • After the Santhanam committee's recommendation, it was established in 1963 by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • It works for the Government of India's Department of Personnel, Ministry of Personnel, Pension & Public Grievances.
  • It is a powerful elite force that contributes significantly to upholding moral principles in society and maintaining the strength of the economy at large.
  • Additionally, it is the nodal police organization in India that organizes inquiries on behalf of Interpol Member nations.

Source: The Indian Express

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) Report

GS-II : Important reports Important reports

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) Report

The "Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India Report 2021" was just released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB).

The report included statistics for "crime rates," "suicide," and "crime against women."

Report’s findings for Crime Against Women

  • National Statistics: The number of incidences of crime against women (per 1 lakh people) grew from 56.5% in 2020 to 64.5% in 2021.
  • 31.8%: Abuse by the husband or his family members
  • assault on women with the intent to offend her modesty (20.8%)
  • Kidnapping and abduction, 17.6%
  • 7.40%: Rape

  • State: In 2021, Assam had the highest rate of crimes against women (168.3%), followed by Odisha, Haryana, Telangana, and Rajasthan.
  • While the three other states (Odisha, Haryana, and Telangana) saw increases, Rajasthan only slightly decreased the actual number of cases.
  • UP is at the top of the list in terms of the actual number of cases filed in 2021, followed by Rajasthan, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Odisha.
  • Nagaland stood out because it had the fewest reported offences against women during the previous three years.
  • Union Territories: With a 147.6% rate, Delhi had the highest percentage of crime against women in the Union Territories in 2021.
  • Cities: Lucknow, Delhi, Indore, and Jaipur had the highest rates, with a combined total of almost 194%.
  • The lowest rates were found in Chennai and Coimbatore (both in Chennai).
  • In terms of population among these cities, Delhi came in first in 2021 (13,892), then Mumbai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, and Hyderabad.
  • Domestic Violence & Dowry Deaths: Throughout 2021, 507 cases—or 0.1% of all crimes against women—were reported in the nation under the Domestic Violence Act.
  • A total of 270 cases were submitted, with Kerala having the most.
  • In 2021, 6,589 incidences of dowry deaths were reported, with UP and Bihar recording the highest number.

Report’s findings for Suicide Rate:

Daily Wage:

  • With 42,004 suicides (25.6%), daily wage earners continued to be the top profession among suicide victims in 2021.
  • For the first time, the percentage of daily wagers involving suicide has surpassed the quarter-mile level.
  • From 2020 to 2021, there was a 7.17% increase in suicides on a nationwide scale.
  • However, the daily salary group experienced an 11.52% increase in suicides over this time.
  • Farming Sector: In total, 6.6% of all suicides that were registered in 2021 included "Persons employed in the farming sector."

Profession-Based Distribution:

  • "Self-employed persons" saw the largest growth, at 16.73%.
  • The only group to have a decrease in suicides was "unemployed persons," with the number falling by 12.38% from 15,652 in 2020 to 13,714 in 2021.

Suicide causes include:

  • 33.2 per cent: Family Issues (other than marriage-related problems)
  • 4.8%: Problems in marriage
  • 8.4%: Health


  • The state with the highest recorded suicide rate in 2021 was Maharashtra, followed by Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh.
  • In 2021, Maharashtra was responsible for 13.5% of all suicides reported nationwide.
  • Delhi recorded the highest number of 2,840 suicides,

Report’s findings for Crime Rates

  • In India in 2021, reported violent crimes such rape, kidnapping, crimes against children, and robbery rose once more.
  • Restrictions related to the pandemic resulted in a decrease in these serious offences in 2020.
  • Even in 2020, murder rates did not decline; they rose again last year.

Crime-related data:

  • Cases of rape increased by 13%. (28,046 in 2020)
  • With a rate of 16.4% and the most actual instances (6,337), Rajasthan had the highest rate of rape in 2021.
  • Crime of kidnapping: up 20% (84,805 in 2020)
  • Murder: From 29,193 cases in 2020 to 29,272 cases in 2021
  • The most murders were committed in Uttar Pradesh, followed by Bihar and Maharashtra.

Crime Against Children:

  • After decreasing in 2020 as a result of Covid-related restrictions, crime against children has now surpassed pre-pandemic levels.
  • 1.49 lakh of these cases were reported in 2021, an increase from 1.48 lakh in 2019.
  • Sikkim, Kerala, Meghalaya, Haryana, and Mizoram are the states with the highest rates of sexual offences against minors.

Violations of COVID-19 Dips:

  • The dramatic fall in cases categorized as "disobedience to order validly published by a public worker" in 2021 is what can be used to explain the overall decline in crime that year (Section 188 of IPC).
  • These cases were primarily filed due to COVID-19 rule violations. Additionally, they were included as "Other IPC Crimes" and "Other State Local Acts."

National Crime Records Bureau

  • It was established in 1986 to serve as a database for data on crime and criminals.
  • It was created in response to suggestions made by the MHA Taskforce and the Tandon Committee to the National Police Commission (1977–1981). (1985).
  • In 2009, the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) project were assigned to NCRB for monitoring, planning, and execution.
  • This scheme links the nation's 6000 senior police offices with more than 15000 police stations.
  • The National Digital Police Portal, which enables searches for criminals and suspects in the CCTNS database, was introduced by NCRB in August 2017.
  • The National Database of Sexual Offenders (NDSO) maintenance and routine distribution to the States and UTs have also been delegated to the Bureau.


  • The National Database of Sexual Offenders (NDSO) is kept up to date by the Bureau, which also regularly shares data with the States and UTs.
  • Additionally, NCRB has been assigned the role of the Central Nodal Agency for managing the technical and administrative aspects of the "Online Cyber-Crime Reporting Portal," which allows any citizen to file a complaint or upload a video as proof of a crime involving child pornography or rape/gang rape.
  • The NCRB has also been charged with carrying out the Inter-operable Criminal Justice System (ICJS).
  • The main IT system used to deliver criminal justice in the nation is integrated through a nationwide platform called ICJS.
  • The system's five pillars—Police (via Crime and Criminal Tracking and Network Systems), e-Forensics for Forensic Labs, e-Courts for Courts, e-Prosecution for Public Prosecutors, and e-Prisons for Prisons—seek to be integrated.

Also, Read - Standalone and non-standalone 5G networks

Source: The Hindu

OTT Platforms

GS-III : Economic Issues Government policies and interventions

OTT Platforms

Recently, a report was released by SBI Research, which said that the OTT (Over-The-Top) market is set to become a Rs 12,000-crore industry by 2023, up from Rs 2,590 crore in 2018.


  • The OTT market is anticipated to expand by 36% annually, from Rs 2,590 crore in 2018 to Rs 11,944 crore in 2023.
  • With over 40 players and original media content available in all languages, OTT has already reduced the revenue and share of the entertainment business by 7-9%. It is also steadily expanding.
  • In the country, there are already over 45 crore OTT users, and by the end of 2023, this number is predicted to increase to 50 crores.
  • The pay-per-view market had 3.5 million subscribers in 2018 and is projected to reach 8.9 million this year and 11.7 million in 2027.
  • A pay television or webcast program called "pay-per-view" enables customers to purchase events to watch on a private telecast.

Growth Drivers:

Affordably priced high-speed mobile Internet, a doubling of Internet users, a rise in the use of digital payments, and lower prices provided by international players are all contributing factors to this rapid growth.

Theatres were totally closed during lockdowns organized by Covid.


  • With the exponential growth of multiplexes since the early 2000s in metro/urban regions, this could result in a repetition of the unexpected death of the VCR/VCP/DVD industry that thrived in the 1980s.
  • It should be emphasized that the exponential growth of video cassette recorders and players (VCRs/VCPs) throughout the 1980s marked a first-ever challenge to the conventional ways of watching movies.
  • Since more than 50% of people use OTTs for more than 5 hours per month, the rise of OTT is predicted to reduce the earnings of movie theatres.
  • It is anticipated that OTT platforms' entry into the fields of health, fitness, and education would further secure their future.
  • The audience has started to recognize it as more than just a form of entertainment, and it has opened up new opportunities for content providers.

About OTT platforms

  • Over-the-top platforms, sometimes known as OTT, are audio and video hosting and streaming services that initially served as content hosting platforms before expanding to produce and disseminate their own short films, features, documentaries, and web series.
  • These platforms provide a variety of content, and they employ artificial intelligence to recommend to users the material they are most likely to watch based on their prior platform usage.
  • Most OTT platforms often charge a monthly subscription fee for premium material that is typically not available elsewhere while offering other content for free.
  • Premium content is typically created and promoted by the OTT platform in collaboration with reputable production companies that have a history of creating feature films.
  • Amazon Prime Video, Netflix, Disney+, Hulu, Peacock, and CuriosityStream are among examples.

laws regulating OTT platforms

  • The Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules 2021, which govern OTT platforms, were announced by the government in February 2022.
  • The regulations establish a three-tier grievance resolution process and a Code of Ethics for OTT platforms, together with a soft-touch self-regulatory architecture.
  • Every publisher needs to establish a grievance officer with a base in India who would take complaints and resolve them within 15 days.
  • Every publisher must also sign up to join a self-regulatory organization. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting will require such a body to register before it can address complaints that the publisher has not resolved within 15 days.
  • The third-tier Oversight Mechanism is made up of the Ministry of Information Broadcasting and the Inter-Departmental Committee it established

Source: The Indian Express

Standalone and non standalone 5G networks

GS-III : S&T Computers and IT

Standalone and non-standalone 5G networks

Image Source - Everything RF

  • Reliance, the largest telecom provider in India, just announced the rollout of its 5G services in Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, and Kolkata this year, with plans to extend and cover the entire nation by 2023.
  • According to the corporation, standalone 5G architecture would be used to launch its 5G services.

Indian 5G smartphone ecosystem

  • Rise steadily: Over the past two years, India's market share for 5G smartphones has increased.
  • Only 3% of all smartphones shipped in India have 5G capabilities, but that percentage is predicted to rise to 35% by the end of 2022.
  • With regards to standalone and non-standalone 5G networks
  • The two basic deployment models for 5G networks are standalone and non-standalone.

Independent mode

  • With specialized equipment, the 5G network functions side-by-side with the current 4G network.
  • Full 5G functionality and new network features like slicing, which gives operators more flexibility to use their spectrum holdings effectively, are accessible in standalone mode.

Non-standalone mode

  • The 4G core infrastructure underpins the 5G network.
  • The initial cost and time required to roll out services through this track are much lower than standalone networks because non-standalone networks are based on existing infrastructure.
  • However, operators can maximize the use of their current network infrastructure with relatively less investment when using the non-standalone option.
  • The majority of smartphones now can connect to non-standalone 5G networks, which are effectively 5G airwaves broadcast across 4G networks. To connect to standalone networks, these handsets will need software updates from their OEMs.

Importance of 5G

  • Faster Internet: Compared to 4G, 5G will enable substantially faster Internet speeds and lower latency.
  • Peak speeds could reach 10 Gbps in contrast to 4G's 100 Mbps.
  • Lower Latency: 5G delay is anticipated to be less than 1 millisecond, compared to 4G latency of 10–100 milliseconds.
  • The amount of time it takes for a device to send data packets and receive a response is known as latency. The answer is faster the lower latency.

Also, Read - F-1 and M-1 Visa Programs

Source: The Indian Express

F-1 and M-1 Visa Programs

GS-II : Governance Citizens and citizenship

F-1 and M-1 Visa Programs

Image Source - ustun law group

It was recently discovered that the Indians received nearly twice as many US student visas this year than the Chinese, according to the monthly visa records.

About F-1 and M-1 Visa Programs

Country-specific evaluation

China continues to be the major country sending students to the United States. The majority of overseas students now enrolled in US universities come from China.

Students from South Korea are in third place, followed by students from India in second.

The F-1 division

  • For people who want to enrol in a university or college, high school, private elementary school, seminary, conservatory, language program, or another intellectual establishment in the US, there is a non-immigrant visa available.
  • After completing your community vocational program, the F-1 visa allows you the choice to transfer to a university.

The F1 and F2 visas are subcategories of the F visa.

  • Non-immigrant students who wish to pursue academic and language training courses need F1 visas.
  • The dependents of F1 visa holders use the F2 visas. Dependents of the F1 visa holder are believed to include spouses and unmarried, minor children.

Category M-1

  • It is a different type of student visa for foreign nationals who want to enrol in language training programs, vocational schools, or other recognized non-academic institutions in the US.
  • Only one year may be spent in a vocational program on an M-1 visa before you must return home. Students in M-1 are not permitted to advance to the university level.

The M1 and M2 visas are subcategories of the M visa.

  • An individual who wants to enrol in a non-academic or vocational course uses an M1 visa.

Relevance to the US

  • Since most pay far higher tuition than US citizens, international students significantly boost the US economy.
  • International students made $44 billion in economic contributions to the US in 2019.

British Empire

  • The UK, another nation that draws many international students, has seen a dramatic increase in Indians receiving student visas relative to Chinese students.

Also, Read - India fifth largest economy

Source: The Indian Express

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