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20 June, 2020

88 Min Read

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Paper Topics Subject
GS-I Victory Day Parade,2020 World History
Delhi’s minor tremors (Earthquake in the Himalayas) Human Geography
GS-II Government of India & AIIB sign an Agreement for $750 Million for COVID-19 support for India
GS-III Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology (CIPET)
Ban on export of HCQ lifted
PT Pointer Acharya Shri Mahapragyaji Art and Culture
PM Street Vendor’s AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi)
VTM kits
Sickle cell disease
Skeletal remains of a child found in Tamil Nadu’s Keeladi Modern History
Favipiravir drug for COVID-19
Global Influenza Data Initiative (GISAID)
National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) Disaster and Disaster management
Eurasian Group (EAG)
National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (NIPFP) Economic Issues
GS-I : World History
Victory Day Parade,2020

INDIAN ARMED FORCES CONTINGENT VICTORY DAY PARADE 2020

  • A Tri-Service contingent of the Indian Armed Forces comprising 75 all ranks, led by a colonel rank officer will participate in the Military Parade at Red Square, Moscow on 24 June 2020, to commemorate the 75th Anniversary of Victory of the Soviet People in the great Patriotic War of 1941-1945.

About the British Indian Armed Forces

  • The British Indian Armed Forces during World War-II were one of the largest Allied Forces contingents which took part in the North and East African Campaign, Western Desert Campaign and the European Theatre against the Axis powers.
  • These campaign witnessed sacrifice by over 87 thousand Indian servicemen beside 34,354 being wounded.
  • The Indian Military not only fought on all fronts, but also ensured logistic support along the Southern, Trans-Iranian Lend-Lease route, along which weapons, ammunitions, equipment support and food went to the Soviet Union, Iran and Iraq.
  • The valour of the Indian soldiers was recognised with the award of over four thousand decorations, which also included award of 18 Victoria and George Cross.
  • In addition the then Soviet Union appreciated the valour of the Indian Armed forces and by the decree of 23 May 1944, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR signed by Mikhail Kalinin and Alexander Gorkin awarded the prestigious Orders of the Red Star to Subedar Narayan Rao Nikkam and Havildar Gajendra Singh Chand of Royal Indian Army Service Corps.
  • The marching contingent taking part in the Victory Day Parade is led by a major rank officer of the gallant SIKH LIGHT INFANTRY Regiment
  • The Regiment had fought with valour in the World War-II and has proud distinction of earning four Battle Honours and two Military Cross amongst other gallantry awards.

 

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GS-I : Human Geography
Delhi’s minor tremors (Earthquake in the Himalayas)

Delhi’s minor tremors

  • In the wake of the recent series of tremors in Delhi-NCR, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology, has said that such tremors are not unusual in the Delhi-NCR region, but indicate that strain energy is built up in the region.
  • They have said that since the seismic network is quite good, present micro to minor earthquakes in and around Delhi-NCR could be recorded.
  • Though our understanding, in terms of when, where and with how much energy (or magnitude) an earthquake can occur, is not clear, but the vulnerability of a region can be understood from the past seismicity, calculation of strain budget, mapping of active faults etc.
  • The Delhi-NCR has been identified as the second highest seismic hazard zone (Zone IV).
  • Sometimes, a vulnerable zone remains quiet, experiences small magnitude earthquakes that do not indicate any bigger earthquake, or receives a sudden jolt by a big earthquake without any call.
  • Out of 14 small magnitude earthquakes in the Delhi-NCR, the 29th May Rohtak earthquake had the magnitude of 4.6.

Past earthquakes scenario In Delhi-NCR:

  • The historical earthquake catalog shows that there were strong earthquakes of ~ 6.5 magnitude at Delhi in 1720; 6.8 at Mathura in 1803; 5.5 near Mathura in 1842; 6.7 near Bulandshahar in 1956; 6.0 near Faridabad in 1960; 5.8 near Moradabad in 1966 in the Delhi-NCR.

Why earthquakes happen in Delhi-NCR?

  • All the earthquakes in Delhi-NCR are due to the release of strain energy, which have been accumulated as a result of northward movement of Indian plate and its collision with the Eurasian plate, through the fault or weak zones.
  • There are so many weak zones and faults in the Delhi-NCR: Delhi-Haridwar ridge, Mahendragarh-Dehradun subsurface fault, Moradabad fault, Sohna fault, Great boundary fault, Delhi-Sargodha ridge, Yamuna river lineament, Ganga river lineament etc.
  • We must understand that the Himalayan seismic belt, where the Indian plate collided with the Eurasian plate and underthrusted beneath the Himalayan wedge, accumulates strain energy at the plate boundary due to relative movement of plates against each other causing crustal shortening and deformation of rocks.
  • These energy can be released through the weak zones and faults in the form of earthquakes ranging from micro (<3.0), minor (3.0-3.9), light (4.0-4.9), moderate (5.0-5.9), strong (6.0-6.9), major (7.0-7.9) or great (>8.0) earthquake, defined as per the amount of energy released.

Impact of Earthquakes in the Himalaya to Delhi-NCR:

  • The Isoseismals of the 1905 Kangra (7.8), 1934 Bihar-Nepal (8.0), 1950 Assam (8.6), 2005 Muzaffarabad (6.7) and 2015 Nepal (7.8) earthquakes in the Himalayan arc are bounded by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) to the north and the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) to the south.
  • These earthquakes are the result of slip on a décollement surface i.e. the contact between the under thrusting Indian plate and overlying Himalayan wedge, which extends southward from 16-27 km depth beneath the MCT to its surficial expression as the HFT at a distance of 50-100 km from MCT.
  • The rupture areas due to large earthquakes show gaps along the Himalayan arc, which have not experienced great earthquakes for a long time, and are identified as the future potential zones for great earthquakes.
  • Three main seismic gaps have been identified in the Himalaya: the Assam Gap between the 1950 Assam earthquake and the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake; the Kashmir Gap between the 1905 Kangra earthquake and the 1975 Kinnaur earthquake; and the ~700 km long Central Gap between the 1905 Kangra earthquake and the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake.
  • The entire NW-NE Himalayan belt lies in the highest seismic potential zone V and IV, where major to great earthquakes can take place.

Neighbouring faults and ridges

  • There are so many faults, ridges, and lineaments transverse to the Himalayan arc, large sediment thickness in the Ganga Alluvium Plains to the north of Delhi-NCR.
  • Again, the Delhi-NCR is ~200 km away from the Himalayan arc.
  • Therefore, a major earthquake in the Himalayan seismic belt may also be a threat to Delhi-NCR.
  • The Garhwal Himalaya, lying in the Central Seismic Gap and north of Delhi-NCR, has experienced the 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake (6.8), 1999 Chamoli earthquake (6.6) and 2017 Rudraprayag earthquake (5.7), and is due for a major to great earthquake. Such a scenario can make a pronounced impact to the north India and Delhi-NCR.

Precautions:

  • The subsurface structures, geometry, and disposition of faults and ridges are to be investigated thoroughly using Geo-scientific studies in and around Delhi and NCR.
  • Since the soft soils do not support the structures’ foundations, structures anchored to bedrock or stiff soils in earthquake-prone areas suffer less damage.
  • Thus, soil liquefaction studies are to be carried out to know the thickness of soft soils.
  • Active faults are to be delineated, and lifeline structures or other infrastructures are to be avoided from nearby active faults, and to be constructed as per the guiding principles of the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS).
  • The outcome of recent micro zonation studies for Delhi-NCR by IMD should be considered for important construction.
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GS-II :
Government of India & AIIB sign an Agreement for $750 Million for COVID-19 support for India

Government of India & AIIB sign an Agreement for $750 Million for COVID-19 support for India

  • The Government of India and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) here today signed a $750 million “COVID-19 Active Response and Expenditure Support Programme” to assist India to strengthen its response to the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on poor and vulnerable households. This is the first ever budgetary support programme from the AIIB to India.
  • AIIB’s assistance for the government’s immediate response to the coronavirus pandemic to provide social assistance for compensating economic loss to vulnerable sections including women and social security measures enhanced for affected workers in both organised and informal sectors.
  • The Programme will provide the Government of India with budget support to mitigate the severe adverse social and economic impact of COVID-19.
  • The current loan will be the second to India from AIIB under its COVID-19 crisis recovery facility apart from the earlier approved $500 million loan for the COVID-19 Emergency Response and Health Systems Preparedness Project.

Beneficiaries

  • The Primary Programme beneficiaries would be families below the poverty line, farmers, healthcare workers, women, women’s self-help groups, widows, people with disabilities, senior citizens, low wage earners, construction workers and other vulnerable groups.
  • The project is being financed by the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) and Asian Development Bank (ADB) in the amount of $2.250 billion, of which $750 million will be provided by AIIB and $1.5 billion will be provided by ADB.
  • The project will be executed by the Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, through various line ministries.

About AIIB

  • Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bank with a mission to improve social and economic outcomes in Asia and beyond.
  • It is headquartered in Beijing.
  • It commenced operations in January 2016.
  • By investing in sustainable infrastructure and other productive sectors today, it aims to connect people, services and markets that over time will impact the lives of billions and build a better future.
  • Jin Liqun is a Chinese politician, banker, and professor. He is currently the President of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).
  • The President of AIIB has a tenure of 5 years.

Various organs of AIIB:

  1. Board of Governors: The Board of Governors consists of one Governor and one Alternate Governor appointed by each member country. Governors and Alternate Governors serve at the pleasure of the appointing member.
  2. Board of Directors: Non-resident Board of Directors is responsible for the direction of the Bank’s general operations, exercising all powers delegated to it by the Board of Governors. This includes approving the Bank’s strategy, annual plan and budget; establishing policies; taking decisions concerning Bank operations; and supervising management and operation of the Bank and establishing an oversight mechanism.
  3. International Advisory Panel: The Bank has established an International Advisory Panel (IAP) to support the President and Senior Management on the Bank’s strategies and policies as well as on general operational issues. The Panel meets in tandem with the Bank’s Annual Meeting, or as requested by the President. The President selects and appoints members of the IAP to two-year terms. Panelists receive a small honorarium and do not receive a salary. The Bank pays the costs associated with Panel meetings.
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GS-III :
Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology (CIPET)

Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology (CIPET)

Context

Union  Minister of Chemicals & Fertilizers, Shri D. V. Sadananda  Gowda  reviewed the activities of Central Institute of Petrochemicals Engineering & Technology (CIPET) through Video Conferencing today.

About Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology (CIPET)

  • Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology (CIPET) was established in 1968 by Government of India with the assistance of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) at Chennai.
  • The main objective of setting up of this specialized institute was to develop manpower in different disciplines of Plastics Engineering & Technology as no similar institute was in existence in the country.
  • International Labour Organization (ILO) served as the executing agency.
  • During the initial project period between 1968 and 1973, the institute achieved the targets envisaged and was rated as one of the most successful UNDP projects implemented worldwide.
  • Today CIPET is a premier Academic institution for higher & technical education under the Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers, Govt. of India fully devoted in all the domains of plastics .

A PREMIER GOVT. OF INDIA INSTITUTE FOR HIGHER & TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF POLYMER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

  • Post-independence, it became a matter of concern that Plastic Engineering & Technology was a growing science and yet there was not enough human resource to meet the demand.
  • Imperative need was felt to establish CIPET -- the unique institute of its kind in the country and even today the institute holds a premier position.
  • The primary objective of CIPET has been contributing towards the growth of the plastics industry through a combined program of education and research.
  • The Institute has evolved through the years, creating closer ties with industries with the intent to create innovative plastic based solutions which are resource efficient and marketable.
  • CIPET has an enviable interface with its business and industry partners. We provide technical / consultancy services in design, tooling, plastics processing & testing for the benefit of plastics & allied industry.
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GS-III :
Ban on export of HCQ lifted

Ban on export of HCQ lifted

  • Government has lifted ban on export of anti-malerial drug Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) API and formulation.with immediate effect.
  • An Inter-ministerial High-Level Empowered Committee meets regularly on fortnightly basis for assessing the availability of drugs in the country and will continue to meet to monitor the situation.
  • In the meeting it was noted that during March-May, 2020 period (COVID-19 period) numbers of manufacturing units of Hydroxychloroquine have increased from 2 to 12 and the country’s production capacity of Hydroxychloroquine have increased three times i.e. from 10 Crore (Approx) tablets per month to 30 Crore (Approx) tablets per month.
  • Currently, India is having surplus of Hydroxychloroquine tablets over and above its domestic requirements.
  • Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) conducts survey regarding availability of Hydroxychloroquine and other drugs in domestic market from time to time.
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GS-I : Art and Culture
Acharya Shri Mahapragyaji

Acharya Shri Mahapragyaji

Context

The Prime Minister paid tribute to Acharya Shri Mahapragyaji on the occasion of  the seer’s birth centenary today.

About Shri Mahapragyaji

  • Acharya Shri Mahapragya(14 June 1920 – 9 May 2010) was the tenth head of the Svetambar Terapanth order of Jainism.
  • Mahapragya was a saint, yogi, spiritual leader, philosopher, author, orator, and poet.
  • He began his life of religious reflection and development as a Jain monk at the age of ten.
  • Mahapragya played a major role in Anuvrat movement launched by his Guru Acharya Tulsi in 1949, and became the acknowledged leader of the movement in 1995.
  • Acharya Mahapragya formulated the well organized Preksha meditation system in the 1970s, and developed the "Science of Living" education system which is a practical approach for the balanced development of a student and his character building.
  • Acharya Shri has written over 300 books in Sanskrit, Hindi, Gujarati, English on these subjects like spirituality, philosophy, psychology and economics.
  • “The Family and The Nation” which was written by Mahapragya Ji along with Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam Ji.

Quotes of Shri Mahapragyaji (for Essay)

  1. “If you Leave ‘Me and Mine’ in Your Lives, then the Whole World Will Be Yours”.
  2. "Healthy person, healthy society, healthy economy"
  3. 'Soul is my God, sacrifice is my prayer, friendship is my devotion, moderation is my strength, and non-violence is my religion'

 

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GS-II :
PM Street Vendor’s AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi)

PM Street Vendor’s AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi)

  • A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed between Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs and Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI), in order to engage SIDBI as the Implementation Agency for PM Street Vendor’s AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) - a Special Micro-Credit Facility for Street Vendors.
  • SIDBI will implement the PM SVANidhi Scheme under the guidance of MoHUA.
  • It will also manage the credit guarantee to the lending institutions through Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE).
  • It will develop and maintain a customized and integrated IT Platform providing end-to-end solutions, including documentation of all the processes and workflows for an end-to-end solution, through a Portal and a Mobile App, to ensure engagement and information flow between Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), Lending Institutions, Digital Payment Aggregators and other stakeholders.
  • It will leverage the network of lending Institutions like Scheduled Commercials Banks (SCBs), Non-Bank Finance Companies (NBFCs), Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs), Co-operative Banks, Small Finance Banks (SFBs), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs), etc. for the Scheme implementation.
  • With a view to ensure effective implementation, SIDBI shall also provide a Project Management Unit (PMU), comprising of  domain experts in training/ capacity building, project and platform management, Information Education and Communication (IEC), banking, NBFC and MFI sectors etc., for the period of PM SVANidhi i.e. upto March 2022.
  • It is pertinent to mention that PM SVANidhi was launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs had, on June 01, 2020 for providing affordable Working Capital loan to street vendors to resume their livelihoodsthat have been adversely affected due to Covid-19 lockdown.
  • This scheme targets to benefit over 50 lakh Street Vendors.
  • Under the Scheme, the vendors can avail a working capital loan of up to Rs. 10,000, which is repayable in monthly instalments in the tenure of one year.
  • On timely/ early repayment of the loan, an interest subsidy @ 7% per annum will be credited to the bank accounts of beneficiaries through Direct Benefit Transfer on quarterly basis.
  • There will be no penalty on early repayment of loan.
  • The scheme promotes digital transactions through cash back incentives up to an amount of Rs. 100 per month.
  • The integrated IT platform for PM SVANidhi is likely to be launched by forth week of June, 2020.
  • In the first phase, 108 cities have been selected, in consultation with States/Uts, for saturation by September 2020.
  • Disbursement of loan is planned to commence in July, 2020.
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GS-III :
VTM kits

VTM kits

  • Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Guwahati, in association with RR Animal Healthcare Ltd and Guwahati Medical College and Hospital (GMCH), has developed low-cost diagnostic kits.
  • These are Viral Transport Media (VTM) kits, RT-PCR kits, and RNA isolation kits.
  • The VTM kits are the first-stop source used to collect nasal and oral swab specimens from an individual source to a laboratory safely for culture and testing.
  • During this period, the virus, if present, in the sample specimens should remain intact until the testing procedure is completed.
  • The kit consists of a comprehensive solution specially formulated for the collection and transport of SARS-CoV-2.
  • To bring down the cost of kits, we have used material that are available in the local market and they are as per the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommendation.
  • These kits comprise two transport media, one for nasopharyngeal and the other for oropharyngeal specimen collection swabs.
  • Both of these are safe to use as they are recommended and validated by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well.
  • The complete package is suitable for the collection, transport, maintenance, and long-term freezer storage of viral specimens.
  • The unique formulation of the transport medium helps in preserving the viability of viruses for up to 72 hours (at refrigerated temperatures).
  • In addition to the sterile VTM kits, the Institute has also developed RNA isolation kits and RT-PCR kits jointly with RR Animal Healthcare Ltd.
  • The isolated and purified RNA is then converted to DNA by an enzyme Reverse Transcriptase (RT), which is used to confirm the presence or absence of COVID-19.

 

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GS-III :
Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease

  • Sickle cell disease is a group of disorders that affects hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to cells throughout the body.
  • People with this disorder have atypical hemoglobin molecules called hemoglobin S, which can distort red blood cells into a sickle, or crescent, shape.
  • Signs and symptoms of sickle cell disease usually begin in early childhood.
  • Characteristic features of this disorder include a low number of red blood cells (anemia), repeated infections, and periodic episodes of pain.
  • The severity of symptoms varies from person to person.
  • Some people have mild symptoms, while others are frequently hospitalized for more serious complications.
  • The signs and symptoms of sickle cell disease are caused by the sickling of red blood cells.
  • When red blood cells sickle, they break down prematurely, which can lead to anemia.
  • Anemia can cause shortness of breath, fatigue, and delayed growth and development in children.
  • The rapid breakdown of red blood cells may also cause yellowing of the eyes and skin, which are signs of jaundice.
  • Painful episodes can occur when sickled red blood cells, which are stiff and inflexible, get stuck in small blood vessels.
  • These episodes deprive tissues and organs of oxygen-rich blood and can lead to organ damage, especially in the lungs, kidneys, spleen, and brain.
  • A particularly serious complication of sickle cell disease is high blood pressure in the blood vessels that supply the lungs (pulmonary hypertension).
  • Pulmonary hypertension occurs in about one-third of adults with sickle cell disease and can lead to heart failure.
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) which is the most prevalent inherited blood disorder, is widespread amongst many tribal population groups in India, posing a considerable health burden in several states.
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GS-I : Modern History
Skeletal remains of a child found in Tamil Nadu’s Keeladi

Skeletal remains of a child found in Tamil Nadu’s Keeladi

  • Skeletal remains of a child were excavated from Konthagai village, part of the sixth phase of ongoing excavations in the ancient site of Keeladi here on Friday.
  • The skeleton was found buried between two terracotta urns that were also found on the same day. It was 75 cm in height and was found 0.5 m below surface level.
  • Excavations are currently taking place at Keeladi, Konthagai, Manalur and Agaram villages in Sivaganga district.
  • Konthagai village, located around 2 km from Keeladi, is believed to be a burial site.
  • Two other skeletal remains of adults were found at Konthagai during this phase. A total of 15 urns have been found till date.
  • A gold coin that is said to have been used extensively in the 17th century AD, some shells and pots, have also been found during the excavation, in all four sites.
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GS-III :
Favipiravir drug for COVID-19

Glenmark gets nod for favipiravir

  • Mumbai-based Glenmark Pharmaceuticals said it has received an approval from India’s drug regulator(CDSO) to manufacture and sell oral antiviral drug favipiravir (FabiFlu) for the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients in India.
  • Favipiravir is the generic version of Japanese firm Fujifilm Toyoma Chemical Co’s Avigan.
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GS-III :
Global Influenza Data Initiative (GISAID)

Global Influenza Data Initiative (GISAID)

  • GISAID is a global science initiative and primary source for genomic data of influenza viruses and the novel coronavirus responsible for COVID-19.
  • It is headquartered in Munich, Germany.
  • It is a not for profit organisation.
  • Since its establishment in 2008, as an alternative to sharing avian influenza data via conventional public-domain archives.
  • GISAID differs from other genetic sequence databases like GenBank and EMBL primarily in that users of GISAID must have their identity confirmed and agree to a Database Access Agreement that restricts the way GISAID data can be used.
  • GISAID was recognized for its importance to global health by G20 health ministers in 2017.
  • In 2020, GISAID entered into the global research effort to understand SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, by making available genomic sequences that are modeled in real time, thereby helping to detect viral mutations and track movement of the virus across the planet.
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GS-III : Disaster and Disaster management
National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF)

National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF)

  • National Disaster Response Fund is defined in Section 46 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005 (DM Act) as a fund managed by the Central Government for meeting the expenses for emergency response, relief and rehabilitation due to any threatening disaster situation or disaster.
  • NDRF is constituted to supplement the funds of the State Disaster Response Funds (SDRF) of the states to facilitate immediate relief in case of calamities of a severe nature.
  • It is a public authority and comes under the ambit of Right to Information.
  • Now, individual contributions amidst the COVID19 is also allowed.
  • The financial assistance from SDRF/NDRF is for providing immediate relief and is not compensation for loss/damage to properties /crops.
  • In fact, the hitherto existing National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) was renamed as National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) on 28 September 2010 with the enactment of the Disaster Management Act in 2005 and consequent changes in the design and structure of disaster management in India.
  • The National Executive Committee (NEC) of the National Disaster Management Authority takes decisions on the expenses from National Disaster Response Fund.

 

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GS-II :
Eurasian Group (EAG)

Eurasian Group (EAG)

  • The Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and financing of terrorism is an FATF-style regional body.
  • The EAG was established in 2004 and is currently an associate member of the FATF.
  • The EAG was created for the countries of the Eurasian region not included in the existing FATF-style regional groups and is intended to play an important role in reducing the threat of international terrorism and ensure the transparency, reliability and security of the financial systems of states and their further integration into the international infrastructure for combating money laundering and terrorism financing (AML/CFT).
  • The creation of the group coincided with the launch of efforts to create conditions for the formation and development of effective anti-money-laundering systems in the region.
  • The founding conference was held in Moscow on October 6, 2004 and was attended by six founding countries: Belarus, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan. In 2005 and 2010 the group was expanded to include Uzbekistan (2005), Turkmenistan (2010) and India (2010) which previously had observer status.
  • Hence presently there are 9 member states. (5Central Asian countries, India, Russia, China, Belarus)
  • The Agreement on the Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism was signed in Moscow in June 2011, granting the EAG the status of a regional intergovernmental organization.
  • Today the EAG brings together nine countries in the region (Belarus, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Observer status has been granted to 15 countries and 23 international organizations.
  • The primary goal of the EAG is to ensure effective interaction and cooperation at the regional level and integration of EAG member-states into the international system of anti-money laundering and combating financing of terrorism in accordance with the Recommendations of the FATF and the anti-money laundering and combating financing of terrorism standards of other international organizations, to which EAG member-states are party.

The main tasks of the EAG:

• assisting member-states in implementing the 40 FATF anti-money laundering Recommendations and the 9 Special FATF Recommendations on combating terrorist financing (FATF 40 9 Recommendations);

• developing and conducting joint activities aimed at combating money laundering and terrorist financing;

• implementing a program of mutual evaluations of member-states based on the FATF 40 9 Recommendations, including assessment of the effectiveness of legislative and other measures adopted in the sphere of AML/CFT efforts;

• coordinating international cooperation and technical assistance programs with specialized international organizations, bodies, and interested states;

analyzing money laundering and terrorist financing trends (typologies) and exchanging best practices of combating such crimes taking into account regional specifics.

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GS-III : Economic Issues
National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (NIPFP)

National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (NIPFP)

  • The National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (NIPFP) is a centre for research in public economics and policies.
  • It is India’s premier economic think thank.
  • It is presently headed by Urjit Patel.
  • Founded in 1976, the institute undertakes research, policy advocacy and capacity building in areas related to public economics.
  • One of the major mandates of the institute is to assist the Central, State and Local governments in formulating and reforming public policies by providing an analytical base.
  • The institute was set up as an autonomous society, at the joint initiative of the Ministry of Finance, Planning Commission, several State governments and distinguished academicians. It is registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
  • In its 40 years of existence, the institute has emerged as a premier think tank in India, and has made significant contribution to policy reforms at all levels of the government.
  • It has maintained close functional links with the Central and State governments all along, and has built up linkages with other teaching and research institutions both in India and abroad.
  • Although the institute receives an annual grant from the Ministry of Finance, Government of India, and various State governments, it maintains an independent non-government character in its pursuit of research and policy.
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