27 May, 2020 37 Min Read
|GS-II||Impeachment of a SC judge||Polity|
|US-China new Cold War||International Relations|
|GS-III||Oil price pickle||Economy|
|PT Pickups||Farthest known galaxy||Science and Technology|
|Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act (1958)||Governance|
|FDI in single brand retail||Economy|
|Orange Passports and LOTUS mark on PASSPORT||Governance|
|Chiru Goat||Environment and Sustainable development|
|Aadhaar Face Authentication||Government policies and interventions|
|International termination charges (ITC)||Governance|
|North Koel reservoir||Water resources|
|SAREX – 18||Bilateral treaties and agreements|
GS-II : Polity
Impeachment of a SC judge
Recently four Supreme Court judges went public with charges against Chief Justice of India. According to constitution a judge of the SC can be removed from his office by an order of the president. The president can issue the removal order only after an address by parliament has been presented to him in the same session for such removal.
The address must be supported by special majority of each house of the parliament (i.e. a majority of the total membership of that house and a majority of not less than 2/3rd of the members of that house present and voting). Article 124 (4) specifies the grounds of removal as proved misbehaviour or incapacity. So far no SC judge has been impeached in India.
Source: Polity book
US-China new Cold War
Part of: GS-II- USA-CHINA Cold war (PT-MAINS-PERSONALITY TEST)
The prospects of a trade war between China and the western economies ratcheted as Beijing accused the US of pushing relations towards a “new cold war”.
Issue on Hong Kong
Over the past few months, Hong Kong, a former British colony and now a special administrative region under Chinese sovereignty, has emerged on the radar of the United States. USA Is cautioned about the sustainability of Hong Kong’s autonomy under the “one country, two systems” (OCTS) model. Hong Kong, the region’s autonomy has been “diminished” in consequence of China’s interventions, though it the proposed Extradition Bill, which, when passed, will authorize the Hong Kong government to extradite people to China and put an end to Hong Kong’s 178 year-long separate legal jurisdiction and the recent National Security bill.
U.S. Interests in Hong Kong
Chinese Interests in Hong Kong
Tension related to Taiwan
The consequences of the breakdown in US-China relations is going to be very devastating for the world and for the global economy because the ability of the US and China to work together was the keystone of the whole arch of globalization and global trade.
The global economy is already expected to contract 3% this year, its deepest slump since the Great Depression, according to the International Monetary Fund.
If tensions continue to escalate, the dispute could morph into a damaging conflict that not only weakens the world's recovery from Covid-19, but also risks slowing important technological innovations.
GS-III : Economy
Oil price pickle
PAPER- GS-III OIL CRISIS
The increased duty on fuel can fund welfare, but arbitrary methods will have implications
Union Petroleum Minister that the Centre is taking a ‘cautious and conscious approach’ of ensuring a balance in fuel prices and aims to use the resultant savings for welfare is on the face of it unexceptionable. With global oil prices still about 45% lower than 2019 closing levels despite coordinated supply cuts by major producers, India had an opportunity to pass on the benefit to consumers and provide a fillip to becalmed consumption.
With curbs on inter-State road transport still in place, contracting automobile sales unlikely to recover any time soon, job losses and pay cuts sure to shrink household budgets, it is hard to see transport fuel demand rebounding to pre-lockdown levels for at least one or two quarters. Add to that the fact that the Centre’s ambitious disinvestment target of ?2.1-lakh crore for this fiscal had included a stake sale in BPCL, and the petroleum products’ pricing approach gets even more complicated. With potential investors unlikely to be impressed by the lack of autonomy in the sector, it is in the government’s interest not to risk the health of the goose that lays the golden eggs.
Oil crisis past to present: https://www.aspireias.com/daily-news-analysis-current-affairs/Oil-Crisis-Past-to-Present
PT Pickups : Science and Technology
Farthest known galaxy
NASA has spotted the farthest known galaxy in the universe, a primitive cluster of stars just 500 million years old. The galaxy was named SPT0615-JD. Preliminary analysis suggests that the galaxy is less than 2,500 light-years across.
A galaxy is a huge collection of gas, dust, and billions of stars and their solar systems. A galaxy is held together by gravity. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, also has a supermassive black hole in the middle.
Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act (1958)
Union government has tabled amendments to Ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains act in the parliament. The Lok Sabha passed the amendments to the Act, the Bill is yet to be cleared by the Rajya Sabha. The Act was originally instituted conservation measures and banned construction activities near protected monuments.
The amendment now allows carrying out public works within the 100 m prohibited zone.
FDI in single brand retail
Union government has decided to allow 100 per cent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in single-brand retail trading through the automatic route. Single-brand retail chain is expected to sell all its products under only one label across its store, example Burger King, KFC, Levis.
If an MNC operates a single-brand retail chain, the product must also be sold under the same brand name globally. The MNC must also source 30 per cent of its purchases for the business from India. Now this rules are slightly relaxed to allow an MNC to set off any local sourcing for its global business, against this 30 per cent quota.
Orange Passports and LOTUS mark on PASSPORT
Ministry of External Affairs has decided to offer orange coloured passport to the travellers who require an emigration check. By this ECR status would be issued a passport with an orange-coloured, non-ECR status will continue to get blue passports.
As per the Emigration Act, 1983, certain categories of Indian passport holders require obtaining an ‘Emigration Clearance’ for going to certain countries.
Emigration, as per the Act, means the leaving of India by any Indian citizen with the intent of taking up employment in certain foreign countries. Persons who don’t have a minimum educational qualification of 10th standard (SSC, Matriculation) will come under ECR category. The idea behind the ‘ECR’ is to ensure the safety of uneducated and unskilled Indian citizens, from the most deprived socio-economic strata, against prevailing legal conditions in certain foreign countries.
Types of passports issued in India
Recent news: The symbol of lotus being printed on the Indian Passport for the security feature.
A day after opposition members in Lok Sabha raised the issue of lotus being printed on new the ministry of external affairs said it was part of the enhanced security features to identify fake passports. Also mentioned that, the other national symbol such as national flower or national animal, also be used for the security features in rotational basis. The question was asked in the Zero hour of the Parliamentary session.
The new passports with lotus symbol being distributed in the Kozhikode in Kerala. These security features have been introduced as part of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) guidelines. Indian citizens who is the bearer of Indian Passport can travel internationally and serves as proof of Indian citizenship as per the Passports Act (1967).
Chiru goat is also known as the Tibetrean antelope. It is native of China (Tibet, Xinjiang region) and India (North Eastern Ladakh region) and regionally extinct in Nepal. Its numbers and distribution have decreased sharply as a result of commercial hunting for the underfur for making of shawls.
In India, it is killed for making of the famous Shahtoosh shawls, which is renowned for its quality from Srinagar.
In 2017, it has been included in “Near Threatened” category by IUCN. The parliamentary standing committee on science & technology, environment & forests had recommended to the ministry of environment, to conserve and breed the Chiru goat, which can then be given to the shawl makers.
The motive behind such recommendation is to provide a sustainable livelihood opportunity to the people of Jammu and Kashmir. However, Ministry of Environment has ruled out the possibility of conservation breeding citing that it may lead to decline in its population due to commercial poaching.
Aadhaar Face Authentication
Logistics Ease Across Different States (LEADS) index is a composite indicator to assess international trade logistics across states and Union territories. It is based on a stakeholders’ survey conducted by Deloitte for the Ministry of commerce and industry.
Gujarat topped the first-of-its-kind index, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh took the second and third positions, respectively. The index is loosely based on the World Bank’s biannual Logistics Performance Index (LPI).
India was ranked 35 among 160 countries in LPI in 2016, up from 54 in 2014. LEADS is based on eight parameters such as infrastructure, services, timeliness, track and trace, competitiveness of pricing, safety of cargo, operating environment and regulatory process.
India has missed the 2017 deadline for elimination of Kala Azar. Elimination is defined as reducing the annual incidence of Kala Azar to less than 1 case per 10,000 people at the sub-district level.
International termination charges (ITC)
The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) cut termination charges for international incoming calls to Land line and wireless connections. International termination charges (ITC) are payable by an international long-distance operator (ILDO), which carries calls from outside the country, to an access provider in the country in whose network the call terminates. ITC is one of the source of foreign earnings for the country.
North Koel reservoir
A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed by Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation for completion of North Koel reservoir project. Part of a fund for this project is derived under PMKSY’s LTIF- Long term Irrigation Fund and rest from state governments contribution. The project situated on North Koel River, a tributary of Sone River. It will provide irrigation to most backward and drought prone districts in Jharkhand and Bihar.
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY)
SAREX – 18
It is a joint search and rescue exercise between India and Japan to help increase mutual understanding in Anti-Piracy operations. During the exercise, helicopters of the Japan and Indian Coast Guard will perform cross landing operations to improve compatibility between the two forces at Chennai. Japanese coast guard ship “Tsugaru”, a patrol vessel with helicopters will participate in this exercise.