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Monthly DNA

24 Jul, 2021

158 Min Read

Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) Scheme, 1975

GS-I : Social issues Programme and policies related to child

Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) Scheme, 1975

  • The Scheme has been renamed Anganwadi Services. It is 1 of the World's largest programmes providing an integrated package of services for the holistic development of the child.
  • Funding: Centrally Sponsored Scheme. All components of ICDS except the Supplementary Nutrition Programme (SNP) are financed through a 60:40 ratio. For SNP = 50:50. The North East states have a 90:10 ratio.
  • Coverage: The scheme is universal covering all the districts of the country. Both Urban and Rural India.
  • Objectives
    1. To improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age group 0-6 years;
    2. To lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child;
    3. To reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropout;
    4. To achieve effective co-ordination, implementation and enhance the capability of the mother.
  • Components:
    1. Beneficiaries: Children of 0 - 6 years; Pregnant women and Lactating Mothers (PW&LM)
    2. 6 Services under ICDS: Provided at Anganwadi centres through Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) and Anganwadi Helpers (AWHs) at the grassroots level.
      1. Supplementary Nutrition, Pre-school non-formal education, Nutrition & health education
      2. Immunization, Health check-up and Referral services. They are provided through NHM. ANM.
    3. There will be 1 Anganwadi centre (AWC) for a population of 400-800; 2 AWCs for 800-1600; and thereafter in multiples of 800 -1 AWC.
    4. The AWWs and AWHs are paid a fixed salaries of Rs.4,500/- and Rs.2250/- per month respectively. Workers of Mini-Anganwadi Centres are being paid honoraria of Rs.3500/-. In addition, the monthly performance-linked incentive of Rs.250/- is also being paid to AWH.
    5. Anganwadi Workers work in ARSH, SABLA and ICDS.
  • Wheat Based Nutrition Program (WBNP)
    1. It is implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
    2. Foodgrains are given to ICDS for providing food to children from 2 to 6 years and pregnant/ lactating women.
  • ICDS Systems Strengthening and Nutrition Improvement Project (ISSNIP): To improve nutritional and early childhood development outcomes of children in India. To strengthen ICDS policy framework.
    1. Anganwadi is a type of rural mother and child care centre in India.
    2. It was started in 1975 as a part of ICDS to combat child hunger and malnutrition.
    3. It provides basic healthcare including contraceptive counselling and supply, nutrition education and supplementation, as well as preschool activities.
    4. It may be used as depots for oral rehydration salts, basic medicines and contraceptives.
  • Anganwadi Worker responsibilities according to MoWCD rules:
    1. Community support, conduct regular quick surveys, and pre-school activities.
    2. Provide health and nutrition education to families especially pregnant women on how to breastfeed, etc.
    3. Motivating families to adopt family planning.
    4. Educating parents about child growth and development.
    5. Assist in the implementation of Kishori Shakti Yojana (KSY) to educate teenage girls and parents. Identify disabilities in children, and so on.
  • Anganwadi Worker (AWW) guides ASHA in performing activities such as the importance of nutritious food, personal hygiene, care during pregnancy, the importance of immunisation etc. An anganwadi worker is a depot holder for drug kits and will be issuing it to ASHA.
  • ICDS Scheme Analysis:
    1. There are 13.79 lakh Anganwadis in the country out of which 9.31 lakh centres are linked to Government's web-enabled data entry system called Rapid Reporting system. Out of them, only 1.09 lakh centres are in urban areas.
    2. For every 100 Anganwadi beneficiaries, only 7 are in urban areas. Because of lack of Anganwadis in cities, leading to poor coverage.
    3. World Urban Prospects 2018 given by UN DESA (Dept of Economic and Social Affairs) estimate the urban population in India which, at present is 34%, will be 40% by 2030 and 50% by 2050. The need for Anganwadis in urban India is high.
  • Center seeks to revamp child care scheme in urban areas
    1. NITI Aayog will develop draft policy. Urban areas are likely to receive a renewed focus under the govt’s ICDS programme, which provides for anganwadis or day-care centres for delivery of nutrition and pre-school education. Health and ICDS models that work in rural areas may not work in urban areas because of higher population density, transportation challenges and migration.
    2. 2018 Govt data says, of the 14 lakh anganwadis in India there are only 1.38 lakh anganwadis in urban areas.
    3. The CNNS Survey highlighted that malnutrition among children in urban India is characterised by relatively poor levels of breastfeeding as mothers have to travel long distances for work. It also found a higher prevalence of obesity because of relative prosperity and lifestyle patterns, along with iron and Vitamin D deficiency.

Revamping of Anganwadis

Revamping of Anganwadis is a continuous process for which various steps have been taken from time to time by the Ministry of Women & Child Development for improving the condition of Anganwadi centres across the country. Following measures have been taken for upgradation of facilities at Anganwadi Centres (AWCs):

  • Revised joint guidelines were issued by Ministries of Women & Child Development, Rural Development and Panchayati Raj for construction of 4 lakh AWC buildings across the country under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) in convergence with Anganwadi Services (ICDS Scheme).
  • Under Swachhta Action Plan, Rs. 10,000/-per AWC is provided for drinking water facilities and Rs.12,000/-per AWC for toilet facilities.
  • Grants are sanctioned for purchase of water filter, furniture, equipment, etc.
  • Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) have been provided with Smart Phones for efficient service delivery.
  • Streamlined guidelines were issued on 13.01.2021, covering several aspects such as quality assurance, roles and responsibilities of duty holders, procedure for procurement, integrating AYUSH concepts and Data management and Monitoring through ‘Poshan Tracker’ for transparency, efficiency and accountability in the delivery of Supplementary Nutrition.
  • Training is a crucial element in the Anganwadi Services Scheme as the achievement of the Programme goals largely depends upon the effectiveness of frontline workers in improving service delivery. Since the inception of the Scheme, the Ministry has formulated a comprehensive training strategy for the functionaries of Anganwadi Services. Training is imparted to the functionaries on a regular basis.
  • Anganwadi Workers are provided job training for 26 working days. During this job training, the knowledge, understanding and skills of Anganwadi Workers on various Acts, Policies, and Programmes related to women and children, setting up vibrant Anganwadi Centres, conducting Early Childhood Care and Education activities, health & nutrition care of children and women, Community Mobilisation, Awareness, Advocacy & IEC, Management of AWC and hands-on experience through supervised practice to work in Anganwadi Centres are developed.
  • Moreover, a robust ICT-enabled platform named Poshantracker has been designed to capture real-time data on implementation and monitoring of Anganwadi Services across the country. The Poshan Tracker management application provides a 360 - degree view of the activities of the Anganwadi Centre (AWC), service deliveries of Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) and complete beneficiary management.
  • Common services Centres (CSC) SPV under Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has been entrusted with providing technical support to States/ UTs and resolving issues regarding downloading the new Poshan Tracker app and its functioning as well as imparting input-based training to the field functionaries. A state-wise nodal person from CSC-SPV has been identified for smooth functioning of the application.

Source: PIB

Agriculture Mechanization

GS-III : Economic Issues Agriculture

Agriculture Mechanization in India

Why is Agriculture Mechanisation important?

  • Agricultural Mechanization plays a vital role in optimizing the use of land, water energy resources, manpower and other inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides etc to maximize the productivity of the available cultivable area and make agriculture a more profitable and attractive profession for rural youth.
  • Agricultural Mechanization is one of the key drivers for the sustainable development of the agriculture sector.
  • Sustainable Agriculture mechanization growth will require appropriate and precision agricultural machinery adequately supported by the latest technology.

Sub mission on Agriculture Mechanization

  • Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has launched a Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM) in 2014-15 with the objectives of increasing the reach of farm mechanization to small and marginal farmers and to the regions & difficult area where farm power availability is low.
  • To boost up mechanization in the agriculture sector improved agricultural implements and machinery are essential inputs for modern agriculture that enhance the productivity of crops besides reducing human drudgery and cost of cultivation.
  • Mechanization also helps in improving the utilization efficiency of other inputs therefore considered to be one of the most important segments of the agriculture sector to boost the income of farmers and growth of the agricultural economy.
  • For strengthening of agricultural mechanization in the country and to bring more inclusiveness Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM) has been introduced with the main objectives of are
  1. To promote ‘Custom Hiring Centres’ and ‘Hi-tech Hubs of High-Value Machines’
  2. To offset the adverse economies of scale arising due to small and fragmented landholding and high cost of individual ownership;
  3. Creating awareness among stakeholders through demonstration and capacity building activities and
  4. ensuring performance testing and certification of agricultural machines at designated testing centres located all over the country.
  • To empower the farmers through Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM) scheme, Government of India has released funds for various activities of Farm Mechanization like Establishment of Custom Hiring Centres, Farm Machinery Bank, High-tech Hubs and distribution of various agricultural machinery etc to different states.

Source: PIB

Government initiatives to boost Industrial Manufacturing

GS-III : Economic Issues Industry

Government initiatives to boost Industrial Manufacturing

The government of India has taken several steps to improve the quality standards of products manufactured under the AatmaNirbhar Bharat Campaign. These inter alia include:

  • Quality Control Orders (QCOs): Since the announcement of AatmaNirbhar Bharat campaign, Central Government through its various Ministries/Departments has notified 156 products under compulsory BIS certification through issuance of QCOs. As per these QCOs, the products specified therein shall conform to the requirements of relevant Indian Standards and bear a Standard Mark under a license from Bureau of Indian Standards.
  • Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme: To provide a major boost to manufacturing, Government has launched Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for 13 sectors with an outlay of Rs 1.97 lakh crore over the next five years.
  • Udyog Manthan: DPIIT in collaboration with D/o Commerce, QCI, NPC, Bureau of Indian Standards, Industry Chambers and line ministries conducted Udyog Manthan, a two- month long series of webinars comprising 46 sessions, focused on Quality and Productivity in all major sectors of manufacturing and services.

The steps taken by Government to uplift the startups and to promote ‘vocal for local’ campaign are as under:

  • Government of India has extended relaxations on prior experience, prior turnover and earnest money deposit as per the provisions of GFR to ease public procurement fromstartups.
  • Government of India has taken up Fund of Funds for Startups (FFS) Scheme and Startup India Seed Fund Scheme (SISFS) to uplift the startups in the country . The objectives of Fund of Funds scheme include accelerating innovation driven entrepreneurship and business creation, mobilizing larger equity- like resources for startups. The SISFS aims to provide financial assistance to startups for proof of concept, prototype development, product trails, market entry and commercialization.

The steps taken by Government to help startups and other local manufacturers in using the e- Commerce and online platforms are as under:

  • Government e-Marketplace (GeM) is set up for providing an online platform for procurement of common use goods and services by government organizations. Any entity including DPIIT recognized startups can register on GeM as sellers and sell their products and services directly to government entities.
  • Startup Runway is developed by GeM in collaboration with DPIIT, which is a unique initiative for promoting entrepreneurship through innovation. It has been developed as a dedicated platform for startups to list their products and services for government procurement with relaxed procurement norms and regulations.

Source: PIB

Government efforts for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

GS-III : Economic Issues Human resource development

Government efforts for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

  • India is 1 of the youngest nations in the World with > 62% of the population in the working age group i.e. 15 to 59 years and > 54% of population below 25 years.
  • Based on the Census 2011 and NSSO data, 104 million fresh entrants to the workforce will require skill training by 2022. Govt has the vision of "Skilled India" with skilling 500 million by 2022.
  • In contrast to developed countries, where % of the skilled workforce is between 60-90% of the total workforce, India records only 4.69% of the workforce with formal vocational skills.
  • Currently, ~ 40 Skill development programmes are implemented by 18 Ministries/ Depts.
  • Ministry of SDE was created in 2014 for coordination of all skill development efforts, filling the gap in demand and supply of skilled manpower, building vocational and technical training framework, skill upgradation, build new skills and innovative thinking.
  • MSDE has arms - National Skill Development Agency (NSDA); National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) National Skill Development Fund (NSDF) and 33 Sector Skill Councils (SSCs).

Skill India mission, 2015

  1. Skill India aims to train over 40 crore people in India in different skills by 2022.
  2. It includes various initiatives of the government like:
    1. National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015
    2. National Skill Development Mission
    3. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
    4. Skill Loan scheme

National Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Policy of 2015

  • National Skill Development Policy was launched in 2009. It was reviewed in 2014-15. A NSDF was also created in 2009.
  • Hence, a new National Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Policy of 2015 superseded the 2009 Policy.
  • The objective is to meet the challenge of skilling at scale (large numbers) with speed, standard (quality) and sustainability.
  • The Skill component addresses key issues like low aspirational value, non-integration with formal education, lack of focus on outcomes, quality of training infrastructure and trainers etc.
  • Approach: Skill development is considered the shared responsibility of Govt, Employers and individual workers, with NGOs, community-based organizations, private training organizations and other stakeholders playing a critical role.
  • Skill India Programme goes alongside the Make in India campaign.
  • The new policy has 4 thrust areas
    1. It addresses key obstacles of skilling through integration with formal education, focuses on outcomes.
    2. It seeks to align supply and demand for skills by bridging existing skill gaps.
    3. Equity is also a focus, which targets skilling opportunities for marginalised groups.
    4. In the entrepreneurship domain, Policy seeks to educate and equip potential entrepreneurs, foster innovation-driven and social enterprises and improve the Ease of doing business.
  • National Skill Development Mission, 2015
    1. It was launched in Budget 2015-16 on the occasion of World Youth Skills Day.
    2. It aims to consolidate the skilling initiatives of all Ministries and to standardize procedures and outcomes across 31 Sector Skill Councils. It provides a strong institutional framework at the Center and States.
    3. It has a 3 Tiered structure
      1. Governing Council: chaired by the PM.
      2. Steering Committee: chaired by the Minister in charge of Skill Development.
      3. Mission Directorate: with Secy, Skill Development as the head.
    4. Mission runs select 7 submissions in high priority areas: Institutional Training; Infrastructure; Convergence; Trainers; Overseas Employment; Sustainable Livelihoods and Leveraging Public infrastructure.
  • Mission also runs submissions in high-priority areas
    1. NSDA: National Skill Development Agency. Created in 2013. An autonomous body attached to the MSDE now (earlier MoF), is mandated to coordinate and harmonize skill development efforts of the Government of India and the private sector.
    2. NSDC: National Skill Development Corporation.
      1. It is not for profit organization set up to facilitate skills with the share of Govt: Private as 49:51. It is a PM Governing body.
      2. STAR: is the National Skill Certification and Monetary Reward Scheme launched in 2013 to motivate the youth of India to acquire vocational skills. It is implemented by NSDC.
      3. Udaan: The special Industry Initiative of J&K is funded by MHA. and implemented by NSDC. It is part of addresses the economic issues of J&K and provides skills and job opportunities to youth.
    3. Directorate of Training
    4. Sector Skill Councils: are industry-led and industry-governed bodies in each industrial sector that will complement the existing vocational education system. They will promote industry participation.
  • Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) is the nodal agency for the mission.
  • Skill India Portal is under MSDE launched in 2015 to provide an online collaborative platform for skilled workers.
  • PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana, 2015
    1. It is an outcome-based and demand-driven skill training scheme.
    2. The objective is skill certification and a reward schemes. It is implemented by the Center along with states.
    3. It is different from DDUGKY which is under MoRD.
  • PM Kaushal Kendras (PMKK): MSDE along with NSDC implements PMKK for setting up model skill centre in every district while ensuring coverage of all Parliamentary constituencies.

National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF), 2013

  1. NSQF is a quality assurance framework which organizes qualifications according to a series of levels of knowledge, skills and aptitude.
  2. The NSQF is a nationally integrated education and competency based skill framework that will provide for multiple pathways, horizontal as well as vertical within general, technical and vocational education.
  3. These levels are defined in terms of learning outcomes which the learner must possess regardless of whether they were acquired through formal, non-formal or informal learning.
  4. All other frameworks, including the NVEQF (National Vocational Educational Qualification Framework) released by the MRD, have ceased to exist, and have been superseded by the NSQF.
  5. National Qualifications Register is the official national public record of all qualifications aligned to NSQF.
  6. The NSQF would also help shift emphasis to outcome-based learning - both in the general and vocational space.
  7. NSQF will also facilitate Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). RPL is an assessment of the skills acquired by the individual (especially informal worker) through experience, observation and self-learning. The assessment is followed by a certification.
  8. Plus it would help alignment of Indian qualifications to international qualifications.

PM Yuva Yojana

  1. It is to create an enabling ecosystem for entrepreneurship promotion among youth through entrepreneurship education and training. The Specific objectives
    1. Educate and equip potential and early-stage entrepreneurs
    2. Connect entrepreneurs through peers, mentors, and funding through E-hubs.

Source: PIB

National Security Act, 1980

GS-II : Governance Rights based issues

National Security Act, 1980

The NSA is a preventive detention law.

    • Preventive Detention involves the detainment (containment) of a person in order to keep him/her from committing future crimes and/or from escaping future prosecution.
    • Preventive detention laws in India date back to the early days of the colonial era when the Bengal Regulation III of 1818 was enacted to empower the government to arrest anyone for defence or maintenance of public order without giving the person recourse to judicial proceedings.
    • A century later, the British government enacted the Rowlatt Acts of 1919 which allowed the confinement of a suspect without trial.
    • Post-independence, India got its first preventive detention rule when the government of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru enacted the Preventive Detention Act of 1950 (which expired in 1969). The NSA is a close iteration of the 1950 Act.
    • Article 22 (3) (b) of the Constitution allows for preventive detention and restriction on personal liberty for reasons of state security and public order.
    • Further, Article 22(4) states that no law providing for preventive detention shall authorise the detention of a person for a longer period than three months unless:
      • An Advisory Board reports sufficient cause for extended detention.
        • The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 has reduced the period of detention without obtaining the opinion of an advisory board from three to two months. However, this provision has not yet been brought into force, hence, the original period of three months still continues.
      • Such a person is detained in accordance with the provisions of any law made by the Parliament.
  • Gives Power to the Government
    • The NSA empowers the Centre or a State government to detain a person to prevent him from acting in any manner prejudicial to national security.
    • The government can also detain a person to prevent him from disrupting public order or to maintain supplies and services essential to the community.
  • Period of Confinement: The maximum period for which one may be detained is 12 months. But the term can be extended if the government finds fresh evidence.
  • No Basic Rights to People Detained under the NSA, including:
    • The right to be informed of the reason for the arrest (Section 50 of the Criminal Procedure Code -Cr. PC).
    • Under the NSA, a person could be kept in the dark about the reasons for his arrest for up to five days, and in exceptional circumstances up to ten days.
      • Even when providing the grounds for arrest, the government can withhold information that it considers to be against the public interest to disclose.
    • Sections 56 and 76 of the Cr. PC also provides that a person has to be produced before a court within 24 hours of arrest.
    • Article 22(1) of the Constitution says an arrested person cannot be denied the right to consult and to be defended by, a legal practitioner of his choice.
      • Under the NSA, the arrested person is not entitled to the aid of any legal practitioner in any matter connected with the proceedings before an advisory board, which is constituted by the government for dealing with NSA cases.

Criticism against the NSA Act

  • No Record of Detentions under the NSA: The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), which collects and analyses crime data in the country, does not include cases under the NSA in its data as no FIRs are registered. Hence, no figures are available for the exact number of detentions under the NSA.
  • In recent cases, different State governments have invoked the stringent provisions of the NSA to detain citizens for questionable offences.
  • Some experts argue that governments sometimes use the NSA as an extra-judicial power.
  • NSA has come under wide criticism for its misuse by the authorities. Experts describe the validity of the Act even during peacetime as 'anachronism'.


It needs to be noted that the Act is 40 years old. Changes are required to ensure that the Act is not used arbitrarily. Arbitrary use of the Act hampers democracy and the basic rights of an individual. Even, the Supreme Court has held that the law of preventive detention has to be strictly construed and meticulous compliance with the procedural safeguards, is mandatory and vital.

For comparison with the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act: click here

Source: TH

Pradhan Mantri Kisan SAMPADA Yojana

GS-III : Economic Issues Food processing industry

Pradhan Mantri Kisan SAMPADA Yojana

  1. Erstwhile SAMPADA (Scheme for Agro-Marine Processing and Development of Agro-Processing Clusters). It is under the Ministry of Food Processing Industries.
  2. Tenure: SAMPADA launched in 2017 for 2016 - 2020 coterminus with the cycle of 14th FC.
  3. Funding: Central Sector Scheme with the allocation of Rs. 6000 crores.
  4. The objective of PMKSY is to supplement agriculture, modernize processing and decrease Agri-Waste. It focuses on Food processing in India.
  5. Components: It is an umbrella scheme incorporating ongoing schemes of the Ministry like
    1. Mega Food Parks, Integrated Cold Chain and Value Addition Infrastructure, Food Safety and Quality Assurance Infra, etc. and
    2. Also new schemes like Infrastructure for Agro-processing Clusters, Creation of Backward and Forward Linkages, Creation / Expansion of Food Processing & Preservation Capacities.
  6. Mega Food Parks Scheme, 2008
    1. It aims to create a modern FPI infra based on a cluster approach and hub and spoke model (CPC, PPC, CC) in a demand-driven manner. The central processing centre is networked with the primary processing centres and collection centres located at the farm gate in production areas.
    2. It is now subsumed under PM Kisan Sampada Yojana.
    3. Godavari Mega Aqua Food Park in West Godavari District, AP is India’s first Mega Aqua Food Park operationalized exclusively for fish and marine products processing in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
  7. Impact
    1. It will result in the creation of modern infra with efficient supply chain management from farm gate to retail outlet.
    2. It also aims to double Farmer's income and boost to Food Processing sector.
    3. It will create huge employment opportunities, especially in rural India.
    4. The scheme will stimulate the export of processed food.
    5. Reduce the harvest and post-harvest losses.

Recent news

  • Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI) has been implementing Central Sector Umbrella Scheme - Pradhan Mantri Kisan SAMPADA Yojana (PMKSY) since 2016-17 for the overall growth and development of the food processing sector, including the processing of agro- products and thus increasing the income of the farmers.
  • The component schemes of PMKSY are –
    1. Mega Food Park,
    2. Integrated Cold Chain and Value Addition Infrastructure,
    3. Creation /Expansion of Food Processing & Preservation Capacities,
    4. Infrastructure for Agro-Processing Clusters,
    5. Creation of Backward & Forward linkages,
    6. Food Safety and Quality Assurance Infrastructure,
    7. Human Resource and Institutions,
    8. Operation Greens.
  • Under component schemes of PMKSY, MoFPI provides mostly credit-linked financial assistance (capital subsidy) in the form of grants-in-aid to entrepreneurs for setting up food processing/preservation industries.
  • So far, Ministry has approved 41 Mega Food Parks, 353 Cold Chain projects, 63 Agro-Processing Clusters, 292 Food Processing Units, 63 Creation of Backward & Forward Linkages Projects & 6 Operation Green projects across the country under corresponding component schemes of PMKSY.
  • These sanctioned projects are estimated to benefit about 34 lakh farmers on completion. In the evaluation study of the Integrated Cold Chain and Value Addition Infrastructure Scheme conducted by M/s NABARD Consultancy Limited (NABCONS) in the Year 2020, it has been estimated that captive projects under the scheme have resulted in an increase in farm-gate prices by 12.38 % and each project is estimated to benefit more than 9500 farmers.

Source: PIB

Healthcare systems in Rural areas

GS-III : S&T Health

Healthcare systems in Rural areas

Health and Wellness centres under AB-PMJAY

HWCs are providing a package of the following 12 services to make basic health facilities equitable, accessible, and affordable to under-served people, especially in rural and remote areas:

  • Care in Pregnancy and Child Birth.
  • Neonatal and Infant health care services.
  • Childhood and Adolescent health care services.
  • Family planning, contraceptive services and other reproductive health care services
  • Management of communicable diseases: National Health programmes
  • General out-patient care for acute simple illnesses and minor ailments
  • Screening, prevention, control and management of non-communicable diseases and chronic communicable diseases like tuberculosis and leprosy
  • Basic oral health care
  • Screening and basic management of mental health ailments
  • Care for common ophthalmic and ENT problems
  • Elderly and palliative health care services
  • Emergency medical services including burns and trauma.

In addition to the above there is a range of wellness activities which include the following:

  • Regular Yoga sessions / Wellness sessions.
  • Through Annual Health Calendar, 39 Health days have been identified to conduct health promotion activities.
  • Ayushman Bharat -Health and Wellness Ambassador Initiative has been launched wherein two teachers in every school will be Ambassadors to foster growth, development and educational achievement of school-going children by promoting their health and wellbeing. This is a joint initiative of MoHFW and MHRD under the comprehensive School Health Program (SHP).
  • Eat-Right toolkit and Food Safety kit (Magic Box) have been developed in collaboration with FSSAI, under the initiative ‘SahiBhojanBehtarJeevan’ (????????????????) Eat Right India’.

Prime Minister AtmanirbharSwasth Bharat Yojana (PMASBY)

Prime Minister AtmanirbharSwasth Bharat Yojana (PMASBY) Scheme has an outlay of about Rs. 64,180 Cr over six years (to be implemented till 2025-26)

Under PMASBY efforts to enhance public health capacities are being undertaken like the following:

  • A paradigm shift in the provision of Urban Primary Health Care services with the establishment of 11,024 new urban Health and Wellness Centers across the country with a focus on slum and slum-like areas
  • Infrastructure support for 17,788 AB- Health and Wellness Centres in rural areas in seven High Focus States and three NE States.
  • Setting up of 3,382 Block Public Health Units (BPHUs) in 11 High Focus States/UTs to strengthen Public Health functions such as surveillance, and epidemiological investigations along with enhanced capacities for clinical diagnostic services and
  • Establishment / Strengthening of Integrated District Public Health Labs (IPHLs) in all 730 districts.
  • Establishment of 50/100 bedded Critical Care Hospital Blocks in 602 Districts and 150 bedded Critical Care Hospital Blocks in 12 AIIMS and Central Institutions.
  • Health Emergency Response- Two state-of-the-art Self-contained container-based mobile hospitals and 15 Health Emergency Operation Centres (HELOCs) towards strengthening Disaster and Epidemic Preparedness and response

Source: PIB

Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs)

GS-III : Economic Issues Human resource development

Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs)

  • ITIs are the backbone of the vocational training system, and the only source of supply of skilled manpower to the manufacturing industry.
  • There are 11,500 ITIs having about 16 lakh seats. But this is grossly inadequate.
  • Only 10% of the workforce has got formal or informal technical training. Only one-fourth of this is formally trained.
  • The intake capacity of UG engineering colleges was > 16 lakh in India which was almost the same as the seating capacity of ITIs. But admissions are not there. Blue-collar workers are not respected.
  • Over 60 years of existence, ITIs have given excellent technicians, mechanics, entrepreneurs and professional leaders.
  • The Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) are affiliated with the Directorate General of Training (DGT), an attached office of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.
  • However, day-to-day management and administrative control of ITIs remains with the respective State Governments or their management.
  • The respective state governments and the private management upgrade the ITIs as per the norms and need from time to time. In addition, the central government also aids the upgradation by providing financial aid through the following schemes:
    1. Upgradation of existing Government ITIs into ModelITI under which amount of Rs.143.31 crores (including State Share) has been released for upgradation of 29 it is.
    2. Enhancing Skill Development Infrastructure in North Easternunder which.Rs. 237.06 crore (Central Share) has been released for interaliaup gradation of 22 ITIs.
    3. Skill Strengthening for Industrial Value Enhancement project also supports among other activities upgradation of it is for which Rs 284.80 crores have been released to 421 ITIs.
  • ITIs are for training the potential industrial workforce through long-term training programmes mainly, of 1 and 2-year duration. However, in case of surplus capacity, they may be affiliated with conducting short-term training programmes which can be customized among others also for existing workers of the unorganized sector as per the contextual needs. In addition, 295 ITIs have been affiliated by the DGT for offering short-term training programme under PradhanMantriKaushalVikasYojana 3.0.

Source: PIB

Green Crackers and NGT

GS-III : Biodiversity & Environment Air Pollution

Green Crackers and NGT

  • Green crackers are less harmful and less dangerous than conventional ones.
  • They are the crackers with reduced emission and decibel levels. They are known as 'green' firecrackers because they have a chemical formulation that produces water molecules, which substantially reduce emission levels and absorbs dust.
  • They are cheaper to manufacture and produce 30-35% less SO2 and NO2 emissions.
  • What are the Green Crackers?
    1. Traditional firecrackers are made of barium nitrate, antimony etc. which causes respiratory problems and even cancer.
    2. Green crackers are the crackers without barium nitrate. NEERI substituted barium nitrate with Potassium Nitrate and Zeolite.
    3. NEERI claimed that Green sparklers (Contains Potassium Nitrate, Aluminium powder and Proprietary additives etc.) led to 30% reduction in PM, SO2 and Nitrous Oxide emissions.
    4. Flower pots are made of mixture of water and lime. And Bomb named ‘SWAS’ (or Safe Water Releaser). They emit similar levels of sound 100-10dBA.
  • What gives colour to the firecrackers?
    1. Red: Strontium salts (Nitrates, carbonates and sulphates of strontium).
    2. Orange: Calcium salts (Carbonates, chlorides and sulphates of calcium).
    3. Yellow: Sodium salts (Nitrates and oxalates of sodium).
    4. Green: Barium salts (Nitrates, carbonates, chlorides and chlorates of barium).
    5. Blue: Copper salts (Carbonates and oxides of copper).
    6. Purple: A combination of copper and strontium compounds.
    7. White: The burning of metals like magnesium, aluminium and titanium).

Government efforts

  • SC has banned the use of Barium nitrate, a key pollutant in crackers.
  • The National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) based in Nagpur is a part of CSIR was asked to facilitate development of green crackers. CSIR-NEERI has made 3 Green crackers
    1. SWAS (Safe Water Releaser): eliminates use of KNO3 & S (Potassium Nitrate & Sulphur).
    2. STAR (Safe Thermite Cracker): eliminates KNO3 & S.
    3. SAFAL (Safe minimal Aluminium): minimal usage of aluminium (only in flash powder for initiation).

For comprehensive notes on Green crackers: click here

For complete news on National Green Tribunal (NGT): click here

Source: TH

Prison Reforms

GS-II : Governance Governance

Prison Reforms

  • Articles 14, 19, 20, 21 and 22 deal with the rights of prisoners.
  • Art 39 (a) Fair justice also deals with Prisons.
  • Prisons is a State subject.
  • Administration and management of prisons is the responsibility of respective State Governments. However, the Ministry of Home Affairs provides regular guidance and advice to States and UTs on various issues concerning prisons and prison inmates.

Statistics on Prisons

  • Bench of Justices U.U.Lalit and K.M. Joseph, in a judgment, highlighted the “alarming” statistics of prisons. Justice Joseph said the occupancy rate in prisons had climbed to 118.5% in 2019.
  • The court referred to the National Crime Records Bureau’s figures of 2019 to show that 18,86,092 inmates were admitted in jails. The number of under trial prisoners in 2019 was 3,30,487,which, in fact, constituted 69.05% of the total number of prisoners.
  • Secondly, a very large sum (Rs. 6818.1 crore)was the budget for prisons.
  • The “tremendous” overcrowding of prisons and the huge budget were both “relevant in the context of the possibilities that house arrest offers”, the court noted. It concluded that “as regards post-conviction cases, we would leave it open to the legislature to ponder over its employment. We have indicated the problems of overcrowding of prisons and the cost to the State in maintaining prisons”.

Justice Amitav Roy Panel of SC recommends several Prison reforms

  • Overcrowding is the common bane in understaffed prisons. Both the prisoner and his guard suffer human rights violations equally.
  • Every new prisoner should be allowed a free phone call a day to his family to see him through his first weeks in jail.
  • The physical production is less, because of the unavailability of police guards for escort and transportation, trial through video call is a solution.
  • There should be at least 1 lawyer for every 30 prisoners.
  • Modern cooking facilities, canteens to buy essential items etc. are other recommendations.

SC recommendations on Prison reforms

  • The court asked Undertrial Review Committees in all districts to meet every quarter.
  • Treat prisoners with dignity. The Supreme Court has been saying this since (the case of) Sunil Batra (1980).
  • In 2014, a Supreme Court bench ordered strict implementation of the provision of the Criminal Procedure Code which prescribes release of undertrials who have served half their sentence.
  • For the release of undertrials, the court asked Undertrial Review Committees in all districts to meet every quarter.
  • The court went on to state that no undertrial should languish in jail for want of bail money. According to the order, 3,470 prisoners had not been released because they failed to furnish bail bonds.
  • In a step to extend reforms to juvenile homes, the court advised that a document similar to the Model Prison Manual be prepared for juvenile observation homes and safety homes.
  • It called for an annual review of the implementation of the Model Prison Manual and said that it should not be reduced to just another document.
  • The Model Prison Manual is a document prepared by the home ministry dealing with various incidental issues including custodial management, medical care, education of prisoners, vocational training and skill development programmes, legal aid, welfare of prisoners, after-care and rehabilitation, and prison computerization.
  • The court, in its directions, also touched upon the need to provide quality legal aid to prisoners by empanelling “competent lawyers". The court said that it should be ensured that “legal aid for the poor does not become poor legal aid".
  • It also said that police personnel in charge of prisons should ensure effective utilisation of funds allocated to them for improving living conditions of prisoners.
  • Pushing for computerization, the court directed that a management information system be set in place in all central and district jails so that there is better handling of prisons and prisoners.

Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D)

  • Govt established BPR&D under the Ministry of Home Affairs in the 1970s.
  • It replaced the Police Research and Advisory Council with the primary objective of the modernization of the police force.
  • The primary objective is the modernization of the police force.
  • In 1995, it was entrusted with the issues relating to Correctional Administration Work (welfare of convicts/ undertrials, rehabilitation after the release of prisoners). Hence it has to ensure the implementation of prison reforms as well.
  • Govt created National Police Mission under the administrative control of BPR&D to transform police forces in the country.

‘Gatekeeper Model’ mooted by NIMHANS to prevent suicides in prisons

  • In a bid to prevent suicides triggered by mental health issues in prisons across the country, the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, has recommended the “Gatekeeper Model” where selected inmates, trained to identify prisoners at risk of suicide, would refer them to treatment or supportive services.
  • Acting on the request of the Ministry of Home Affairs, NIMHANS, an Institute of National Importance, issued a set of guidelines on the management of mental health issues of the prisoners and prison staff. Referring to the Bangalore Prison Mental Health Study, the advisory pointed to the prevalence of mental illness and substance use disorder in about 80% of the prison population.
  • NIMHANS experts said prisoners with mental disorders had to be regularly assessed for severity of the suicidal risk and also put on regular and supervised medication. To address the prisoner’s mental health needs, the correctional facility should have links to community-based initiatives like the District Mental Health Programme.

“Buddy system”

  • The advisory said the concept of a ‘Buddy System’ — social support through trained prisoners called “buddies” or “listeners” — was found to have a good impact on the well-being of suicidal prisoners. Periodic telephone conversations with friends and family would also foster support, it said.
  • These initiatives were part of several other recommendations made by NIMHANS to effectively manage mental health issues among prisoners and staff.
  • Communicating the guidelines to all States, the MHA said the COVID-19 virus had posed unique challenges to the world and prisons and correctional facilities were also affected by the pandemic.
  • Though appropriate measures were taken by the authorities to check the spread of the virus in prisons, there was a need to continue monitoring the situation rigorously without letting the guard down and providing care to inmates and prison staff.
  • Emphasising on the mental health of prisoners, the Ministry said incarcerated people could face many vulnerabilities during the pandemic, which might impact their mental wellbeing. The prison staff was also working under tremendous pressure and faced challenges in performing their duty while safeguarding themselves from contracting the infection.
  • In Tamil Nadu, Director-General of Police, Prison & Correctional Services, Sunil Kumar Singh said 58 mobile phones were purchased for prisoners to make video calls to their family members in lieu of the physical interviews that were temporarily suspended in view of the pandemic.
  • (Assistance for overcoming suicidal thoughts is available on the helpline number 104.)

Click here to read a comprehensive analysis on Prison reforms.

Source: TH

Steps taken to improve Nutritional status of Women and children

GS-III : Economic Issues Malnourishment

Steps were taken to improve the Nutritional status of Women and Children

Read complete news on Malnourishment: click here

The specific targeted interventions being implemented by the Government to improve the nutritional status of pregnant women and lactating mothers under the umbrella Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) throughout the country are as under:

  1. Anganwadi Services Scheme
  2. POSHAN Abhiyaan
  3. Pradhan MantriMatruVandanaYojana (PMMVY)

Anganwadi Services Scheme:

The beneficiaries under this scheme are children in the age group of 0-6 years, pregnant women and lactating mothers and a following package of services is provided under the scheme:

  • Supplementary Nutrition (SNP)
  • Pre-school Non-formal Education,
  • Nutrition & Health Education,
  • Immunization,
  • Health Check-up, and
  • Referral Services

Three of the six services, viz., Immunization, Health check-up and Referral Services are related to health and are provided through NRHM & Public Health Infrastructure.

POSHAN Abhiyan, 2018

  • Launched from Jhunjhunu in Rajasthan (flagship programme of MoWCD)
  • Intro: Multiministerial convergence mission initiated after NITI recommendations to reduce the problem of Malnutrition. Govt is implem sev schemes under ICDS as direct target intervention. Maln is not direct cause of death but contri to Mortality and Morbidity by reduction in resistance to infections.
  • Provisions
    1. The aim is to generate Jan Andolan towards Nutrition. Use of technology, Reduce stunting, Undernutrition, Anemia, and Low birth weight, focus on Adolescent girls and P&LW.
    2. It ensures convergence with various programs like Anganwadi Services, PM MatruVandanaYojana, Scheme for Adolescent Girls, NHM, Swach Bharat Mission, PDS, MGNREGA etc.
    3. Goals = It is a comprehensive approach to improve the nutritional status of Children from 0-6 years, Adolescent Girls Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers in 3 years from 2017-18.
    4. It will strive to reduce stunting, undernutrition, anaemia (among young children, women and adolescent girls) and reduce low birth weight by 2%, 2%, 3% and 2% per year for 3 years.
    5. Mission 25: It would strive to reduce the Stunting target from 38.4% (NFHS – IV) to 25% by 2022.
    6. 3 things = Technology, Behavioral Change and Targeted Approach.
    7. Decentralized Governance and Good Governance.
    8. 7 Components = Grievance redressal, Convergence, ICDS, Behavioral change, Incentives, Innovation, Training and capacity building.
    9. Integration with Digital India = VHSN - Very high speed network.
    10. Anganwadi Workers.
    11. Also include Breastfeeding.
    12. To achieve improvement in nutritional status of children from 0 to 6 years, adolescent girls, PM&LW.
    13. Mapping of var schemes wrt Maln, conv mechanism, ICT based real time monit system, incentivizing States to meet targets, incentivizing AWW for IT based tools, intro measurement of height of children, social audits, setting up Nutrition resource centers, Jan Andolan.
  • Funding: For 3 years from 2017-18 with a Budget outlay of 9046 crore.
    1. 50% of 9046 crore is through Budgetary support with 60:40 (Center: States) for States; 90:10 Northeast and Himalayan and 100% for UTs without legislature.
    2. The rest 50% will be given by World Bank or other Multilateral Development Banks.
  • > 10 crore poeple will be benefited. All States and UTs covered.
  • Govt celeb Rashtriya Poshan Mah in Sep 2019 to emphasize need for healthy nutrition by sensitizing people for healthy eating and solve issues of obesity and undernourishment.
  • Key components of the Abhiyaan are as follows:
    1. Convergence
    2. Use of technology
    3. Community Mobilization and Behavioral Change
    4. Jan Andolan
    5. Capacity Building
    6. Incentives and Awards
    7. Innovation

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

  • PMMVY is a Maternity Benefit program implemented in all districts in accordance with NFSA, 2013.
  • It provides partial compensation for wage loss in terms of cash incentive for the 1st living child.
  • Objective of the PMMVY is to provide partial compensation for the wage loss in terms of cash incentive so that the woman can take adequate rest before and after delivery of the first child and would also lead to improved health seeking behavior amongst the pregnant women & lactating mothers (PW&LM).
  • The scheme envisages payment of maternity benefits of ?5,000/- in beneficiary’s bank/post office account linked to her Aadhaar Number in Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) mode in three instalments.
  • The eligible beneficiary is to receive the remaining cash incentive as per approved norms towards Maternity Benefit under Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) after institutional delivery so that on an average, a woman gets ?6000/-.


  1. All Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers, excluding PW&LM who are in regular employment with Center or State or PSUs or getting similar benefits under any law.
  2. All PW&LM having pregnancy >= 1 Jan 2017 for first child.
  3. In Case of Miscarriage/Still Birth/ Infant Mortality: Benefits will be given only once and remaining installments will be given in any future pregnancy.
  4. Pregnant and Lactating AWWs/ AWHs/ ASHA may also avail the benefits under PMMVY.


  1. Cash incentive of Rs. 5000 in 3 installments
    1. 1000 on registration of pregnancy at Anganwadi Center (AWC).
    2. 2000 after 6 months of pregnancy on receiving >=1 ante natal check up.
    3. 2000 after children birth is registered and child received 1st vaccines.
  2. Incentive of Rs. 1000 to be given through Janani Suraksha Yojana for promoting institutional delivery.

For complete analysis on Malnourishment: click here

Source: PIB

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