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UPSC Courses

Homeless Children

Homeless Children Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 (JJ Act) is the primary law for children in the country. As per Section 2 (14) (vi) of the JJ Act, a child who does not have parents and no one is willing to take care of, or whose parents have abandoned or surrendered him is included as a “child in need of care and protection.” The Act provides a security net of service delivery structures including measures for institutional and non-instituti

Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (ARHC) Scheme

Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (ARHC) Scheme The aims and objectives of the Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (ARHC) Scheme announced under Atmanirbhar Bharat Package are as follows: To address the vision of ‘AtmaNirbhar Bharat Abhiyan’ significantly by creating a sustainable ecosystem of affordable rental housing solutions for urban migrants/poor. To achieve the overall objective of “Housing for All” encompassing the need for affordable rental hou

K shaped recovery vs V shaped recovery in India

K shaped recovery vs V shaped recovery in India What is a K-shaped recovery? A K-shaped recovery is a post-recession scenario in which one segment of the economy begins to climb back upward while another segment continues to suffer. If illustrated, the economic growth would roughly resemble the two diverging diagonal lines of the letter "K" - hence the name. This is quite unusual. Traditionally, when the economy dips, it's felt throughout every industry and demogr

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana

PM Fasal Bima Yojana, 2016 = MoAFW One Nation – One Scheme theme.  It will replace 2 schemes: National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS) and the modified NAIS. It was launched along with 2 schemes: Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) and restructured pilot UPIS (Unified Package Insurance Scheme).  Objectives:  Provide insurance coverage,  Stabilize (not double) income of farmers, Encourage farmers to adopt inno

Anti Drone system developed by India

Anti Drone system developed by India DRDO has developed an anti-drone system to neutralize enemy drone attacks. The Indigenous Drone Technology is capable of counter-attacks including detection, Soft Kill (for jamming the communication links of Drone) and Hard Kill (Laser based on hard kill to destroy the Drone) of enemy Drones. The Anti-Drone System Technology and how it works Anti-drone systems are used to detect and/or intercept unwanted drones and unmanned aerial vehi

Academic credit bank in National Education Policy

National Education Policy turns one On the first anniversary of the National Education Policy (NEP), the Centre plans to officially roll out some initiatives promised in the policy, such as a credit transfer system that will allow multiple entries and exit options in higher education, as well as engineering programmes in regional languages. However, other promised reforms such as the Higher Education Commission of India (HECI), the four-year undergraduate degree, and the common universi

Organic Farming and Zero Budget Natural Farming

Organic Farming and Zero Budget Natural Farming Read the complete topic about Organic Farming and then read the following content, your retention quality will improve exponentially. Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana: click here to get the complete topic. Zero Budget Natural Farming Intro: Originally promoted by Subhash Palekar in the mid-1990s as an alternative to GR methods. Rationale: According to NSSO data, ~ 70% of Agriculture households spend more than they e

New Technologies in Agriculture Sector

New Technologies in Agriculture Sector National Agricultural Research System National Agricultural Research System coordinated at the apex level by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)/ Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), comprises of 98 Agricultural Research Institutes, 5 Deemed Universities and 3 Central Agricultural Universities besides 63 State Agricultural Universities, 4 Universities with Agriculture Faculty and 82 All India Coordinated Research

Farmer Producer Organizations(FPOs)

Farmer Producer Organizations(FPOs) The government of India has approved and launched the Central Sector Scheme of “Formation and Promotion of 10,000 Farmer Producer Organizations(FPOs)” to form and promote 10,000 new FPOs till 2027-28 with a total budgetary outlay of Rs.6865 Cr. Under the scheme, the formation and promotion of FPO is based on the Produce Cluster Area approach and the specialized commodity-based approach. While adopting a cluster-based approach, the f

NSDM to train a minimum of 300 million skilled people by 2022

NSDM to train a minimum of 300 million skilled people by 2022 Read the complete note on Skill Development Efforts of the Government of India and then continue reading here Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship has launched the National Skill Development Mission (NSDM) to provide the overall institutional framework to rapidly implement and scale up the skill development efforts across India. NSDM envisages training a minimum of 300 million skilled people by the year 2022.

PM's Science, Technology and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC)

PM's Science, Technology and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC) Govt scraps Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) and replace it with PM's Science, Technology and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC) It has 2 functions Act as a high-level advisory body to several ministries. Execute Mission-oriented programmes. It has 9 members. Unlike the earlier SACs, Secretaries of various scientific ministries like Education, Environment and Health would be 

I-STEM Web Portal: Phase II

I-STEM Web Portal: Phase II The Indian Science Technology and Engineering facilities Map (I-STEM), the national web portal for sharing R&D facilities was formally launched in January 2020. I-STEM (www.istem.gov.in) is an initiative of the Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser to the Govt. of India (PSA, GOI) under the aegis of the Prime Minister Science, Technology and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC) mission. I-STEM project has been accorded extension for five ye

Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy, 2013

Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy, 2013 The policy seeks to focus on both STIs for people and people for STIs. It aims to bring all the benefits of STI to national development and sustainable and more inclusive growth. It seeks the right sizing of gross expenditure on R&D by encouraging private sector participation in R&D, Technology and Innovation. It also wants to bring gender parity in STI activities and gaining global competitiv

National IPR Policy, 2016 (1st IPR Policy)

National IPR Policy, 2016 (1st IPR Policy) It came in the backdrop of the USTR Special 301 Report (on Global State of IPR Protection and Enforcement) retaining India on the 'Priority Watch List. ‘Creative India, Innovative India’ is the tagline of the policy. This is to incentivize entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation and curb the manufacturing and sale of counterfeits. Objectives: IPR Awareness, outreach and promotion; Create an atmosphere of in

PM CARES for Children scheme

PM CARES for Children scheme Ministry of Women and Child Development has launched the web-based portal pmcares for children.in to facilitate submission of applications, identification of children eligible to receive support under the 'PM CARES for Children' scheme and processing of applications for securing benefits for them. 'PM CARES for Children scheme was announced by the Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi for supporting children who have lost both parents or surviving pa

Indian scientists discover materials that self-repair mechanical damages

Indian scientists discover materials that self-repair mechanical damages New materials may soon make it possible for damaged electronic components, such as in space crafts, to mend themselves. The materials recently developed by scientists can repair their own mechanical damages with the electrical charges generated by the mechanical impact on them. Devices that we use daily often break down due to mechanical damage, forcing us either to repair or replace them. This decreases the life of

National Security Act, 1980

National Security Act, 1980 The NSA is a preventive detention law. Preventive Detention involves the detainment (containment) of a person in order to keep him/her from committing future crimes and/or from escaping future prosecution. Preventive detention laws in India date back to the early days of the colonial era when the Bengal Regulation III of 1818 was enacted to empower the government to arrest anyone for defence or maintenance of public order wi

Pradhan Mantri Kisan SAMPADA Yojana

Pradhan Mantri Kisan SAMPADA Yojana Erstwhile SAMPADA (Scheme for Agro-Marine Processing and Development of Agro-Processing Clusters). It is under the Ministry of Food Processing Industries. Tenure: SAMPADA launched in 2017 for 2016 - 2020 coterminus with the cycle of 14th FC. Funding: Central Sector Scheme with the allocation of Rs. 6000 crores. The objective of PMKSY is to supplement agriculture, modernize processing and decrease Ag

Healthcare systems in Rural areas

Healthcare systems in Rural areas Health and Wellness centres under AB-PMJAY HWCs are providing a package of the following 12 services to make basic health facilities equitable, accessible, and affordable to under-served people, especially in rural and remote areas: Care in Pregnancy and Child Birth. Neonatal and Infant health care services. Childhood and Adolescent health care services. Family planning, contraceptive services and other reproductive health care services Mana

Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs)

Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) ITIs are the backbone of the vocational training system, and the only source of supply of skilled manpower to the manufacturing industry. There are 11,500 ITIs having about 16 lakh seats.  But this is grossly inadequate.  Only 10% of the workforce has got formal or informal technical training. Only one-fourth of this is formally trained. The intake capacity of UG engineering colleges was >

Paramparagat Krishi Vikaas Yojana (Organic Farming), 2015

Paramparagat Krishi Vikaas Yojana (Organic Farming), 2015 Sikkim is World's 1st organic State. MP has the largest area under Organic certification followed by Rajasthan, Maharashtra and UP. Ministry: of Agriculture and Farmer’s Welfare. Funding: Centrally Sponsored with 60:40 for States except NE and Himalayan States (90:10) and 100% for UTs. Components: To produce agricultural products free from chemicals and pesticide residues by

Government efforts to promote IT based education

Government efforts to promote IT-based education A comprehensive initiative called PM eVIDYA has been initiated as part of Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan on 17th May 2020, which unifies all efforts related to digital/online/on-air education to enable multi-mode access to education. The initiative includes: DIKSHA (one nation, one digital platform)is the nation’s digital infrastructure for providing quality e-content for school education in states/UTs and QR-coded Energized

How to restore water bodies?

How to restore water bodies? It is for the State Governments concerned to undertake enumeration, protection and management of water bodies in their respective States. However, this Ministry undertakes a census of minor irrigation schemes from time to time, which also captures information pertaining to certain specific water bodies in the country. As per the latest census, being the 5th census of minor irrigation schemes with the reference year 2013-14, there are 5,16,303 water bodies

UNESCO strips Liverpool of its world heritage status

UNESCO strips Liverpool of its world heritage status The English city of Liverpool has been removed from UNESCO’s list of world heritage sites after the United Nations’ cultural agency found new buildings, including a football stadium, undermined the attractiveness of its Victorian docks. Liverpool was named a World Heritage Site in 2004, joining cultural landmarks such as the Great Wall of China and the Taj Mahal. After a vote in China by members of its World Heritage Comm

Pegasus spyware

Pegasus spyware It is spyware that works by sending an exploit link, and if the target user clicks on the link, the malware or the code that allows the surveillance is installed on the user’s phone. Pegasus is installed without the user’s knowledge or permission. Once Pegasus is installed, the attacker has complete access to the target user’s phone. Pegasus delivers a chain of zero-day exploits to penetrate security features on the phone and installs

Continuation of National AYUSH Mission

Continuation of National AYUSH Mission India possesses an unmatched heritage represented by its traditional systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Sowa Rigpa, Unani and also Homeopathy (ASU&H) which are a treasure house of knowledge for preventive, promotive and curative healthcare. The positive features of the Indian systems of medicine namely their diversity and flexibility; accessibility; affordability, broad acceptance by a large section of the general public; comparatively

North Eastern Institute of Ayurveda & Folk Medicine Research (NEIAFMR) at Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh

North Eastern Institute of Ayurveda & Folk Medicine Research (NEIAFMR) at Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh Cabinet approves the change of nomenclature & mandate of North Eastern Institute of Folk Medicine (NEIFM) as North Eastern Institute of Ayurveda & Folk Medicine Research (NEIAFMR). The NEIFM, Pasighat was established for systemic research, documentation and validation of traditional folk medicine and health practices of the region. The objectives for which the Institute wa

Sugarcane Cultivation in India

Sugarcane Cultivation in India Sugarcane belongs to the Poaceae family of true grasses. It is a tropical and perennial grass which attains a length of 10 to 20 feet. A single plant of sugarcane has ‘many stems’ in a tuft. Since ancient times, Sugar has been produced in the local units in India using traditional Khandsari process.   Modern Sugar making was introduced in India probably by Dutch. The first Sugar Mill was started in India in Bihar in 1903; followed by a

‘National Mission on Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive’ (PRASHAD)

‘National Mission on Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive’ (PRASHAD) The ‘National Mission on Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive’ (PRASHAD) is a Central Sector Scheme fully financed by the Government of India launched by the Ministry of Tourism in the year 2014-15 with the objective of integrated development of identified pilgrimage and heritage destinations. The scheme aimed at infrastructure developm

Artificial Intelligence (AI)-powered grievance management application

Artificial Intelligence (AI)-powered grievance management application Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh launched an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-powered grievance management application in New Delhi on July 15, 2021, developed by the Ministry of Defence with the help of IIT-Kanpur. This is the first AI-based system developed to improve grievance redressal in the Government. The AI tool developed as part of the initiative has the capability to understand the content of the complaint ba

Delhi Water Crisis Issue

Delhi Water Crisis Issue Haryana releases 16,000 cusecs water for Delhi amidst the water shortage in the capital. Delhi Jal Board (DJB) vice-chairman Raghav Chadha blamed the Haryana government for triggering a “severe water crisis” in the national capital, and exhorted the neighbouring state to adhere to orders by the Supreme court on water sharing. What’s the Issue? Delhi receives water from Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Haryana. The largest share of water comes

India & Russia Agree to Hold 2+2 Dialogue

India & Russia Agree to Hold 2+2 Dialogue Prime Minister Narendra Modi agreed to establish a 2+2 ministerial dialogue between foreign and defence ministers to add further momentum to the bilateral strategic partnership. Russia is the first non-QUAD member with which India is to hold the dialogue. In 2021, President Vladimir Putin is to visit India to hold the India-Russia bilateral summit. The summit is alternatively held in India and Russia. 2+2 Dialogue: On the line

South African Protests and India South Africa Relations

South African Protests and India South Africa Relations The unrest in South Africa set off after the imprisonment of former President Jacob Zuma. The rioting originated in Zuma’s home province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), where he is serving a 15-month sentence for contempt of court, after failing to appear for a corruption inquiry. Who is Jacob Zuma?  Jacob Zuma assumed the presidency in 2009. Zuma was once a freedom fighter in the ruling African Natio

DBT MOES Polar Research Centre

DBT MOES Polar Research Centre Department of Biotechnology signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) With the Ministry of Earth Sciences To Set up the DBT MOES Polar Research Centre The POLAR region encompassing the Antarctic, Arctic, Southern Ocean and the Himalayas is a unique ecosystem offers a huge amount of interest due to its extreme climate compare to the rest of the world. Although researchers across the globe have contributed to different areas of research, the POLAR region

40th Foundation Day of NABARD

40th Foundation Day of NABARD What is NABARD? NABARD is a development bank focussing primarily on the rural sector of the country. It is the apex banking institution to provide finance for Agriculture and rural development. Its headquarter is located in Mumbai. It is responsible for the development of small industries, cottage industries, and any other such village or rural projects. It is a statutory body established in 1982 under Parliamentary act-National Bank for Agriculture

Relics of 17th century Georgian Queen St. Ketevan Sent to Georgia

Relics of 17th century Georgian Queen St. Ketevan Sent to Georgia After a long-standing request of Georgia, External Affairs Minister handed over the holy relics of 17th century Georgian Queen St. Ketevan nearly 16 years after they were found in Goa. Who was St. Ketevan? Queen Ketevan was a 17th-century Georgian Queen. From Kakheti, a kingdom in eastern Georgia, she was tortured and killed in 1624 in Shiraz during the rule of the Safavid dynasty. Portuguese missionaries were sa

Lord Jagannath Temple

Lord Jagannath Temple Jagannath Puri Rath Yatra for Lord Jagannath was commenced recently. About Jagannath Puri Yatra Jagannath Puri Yatra is held at one of the Char Dhams called Jagannath Temple in Puri, Odisha. This festival is the most famous Vaishnavite ritual observed in India and abroad. On the occasion, devotees pray to three deities – Lord Jagannath, Lord Balabhadra and Lordess Subhadra. For this festival, special chariots are built each year. Similar procession

Protests in Cuba

CUBA Protests Thousands of people in the small island nation of Cuba took to the streets on Sunday against the country’s communist government collapsing economy and the government’s handling of the Covid-19 pandemic and shortage of food and lack of some basic medicines Why’s the economy falling? Cuba's economy is struggling as Tourism, one of the most important sectors has been devastated by the restrictions on travel during the Covid-19 pand

Climate Change Impact on Health

Climate Change Impact on Health With the monsoon making a revival over several parts of India, there is a rise in lightning-linked deaths. Over the years, the Home Ministry’s statistics consistently cited lightning as the biggest natural disaster-linked killer in India. The recent statistics from the National Crime Records Bureau, from 2019, said that year, there were 8,145 deaths in the country attributable to forces of nature. Of these, 35.3% deaths were reported due to &lsqu

Assam's Prevention of Cattle Bill- Provisions & Critical Analysis

Assam's Prevention of Cattle Bill- Provisions & Critical Analysis The Assam government introduced the Assam Cattle Preservation Bill 2021 to bring in more stringent measures to check the slaughter of cattle in the state. Assam already has existing cow protection laws. The Assam Cattle Preservation Act, 1951 (Later amended to Assam Cattle Preservation (Amendment) Act, 1962) lays down provisions for bulls, bullocks, cows, calves, male and female buffaloes, and buffalo calves The n

US-Canada Heat Waves

While heatwaves are quite common during the summer months, the scorching heatwave hitting parts of western Canada and the US has been particularly devastating – with temperature records shattered and hundreds of people falling victim to the extreme heat. Canada broke its temperature record for a third consecutive day: recording a whopping 49.6°C on 29 June in Lytton, a village northeast of Vancouver, in British Columbia. The persistent heat over parts of western Canada and part

Red Sanders

Red Sanders Red sanders or red sandalwood is a species endemic to the southern Eastern Ghats mountain range of South India. It is a rare kind of sandalwood that is in high demand in the international market and costs around Rs.1,500 to Rs.2,000 a kg. The major markets for wood are China, Japan, the Middle East, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Nepal. This tree is valued for the rich red colour of its wood. The wood is not aromatic. The tree is not to be confused with the aromatic Sant

UP Population Policy 2021-2030

UP Population Policy 2021-2030 Rising population was the root of major problems and prevailing inequality in society. It is also a boon to the problems of the society if we optimally use the demographic dividend and we use it optimally. The new UP policy aims at decreasing the total fertility rate from 2.7 to 2.1 by 2026 and 1.7 by 2030, increase the modern contraceptive prevalence rate from 31.7% to 45% by 2026 and 52% by 2030, increase male methods of contraception use from 10.8%

Sikkim Vegetation

Sikkim Vegetation Sikkim, the smallest State with less than 1% of India’s landmass, is home to 27% of all flowering plants found in the country, reveals a recent publication by the Botanical Survey of India (BSI). Flora of Sikkim – A Pictorial Guide, released earlier this week, lists 4,912 naturally occurring flowering plants in the tiny Himalayan State. The total number of naturally occurring flowering plants in the country is about 18,004 species, and with 4,912 species, th

Schemes for Solar Energy

Schemes for Solar Energy PM KUSUM SCHEME: (MNRE) Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evem Utthan Mahabhiyan (PM KUSUM) Scheme. For installation of solar pumps and grid connected solar and other renewable power plants in the country. The scheme aims to add solar and other renewable capacities of 25,750 MW by 2022. It consists of 3 components 10,000 MW of Decentralized Ground Mounted Grid Connected Renewable Power Plants of individual pla

Tele Law Programme under Department of Justice

Tele Law Programme under the Department of Justice Tele–Law began its humble journey in 2017 by covering 170 districts in 11 States through 1800 CSCs. In 2019, 115 Aspirational Districts were added taking the number of CSCs to 29,860. The tele-Law programme is presently operational in 633 districts (including 115 Aspirational Districts) across 34 States/UTs through a network of 50,000 CSCs.  The programme connects the disadvantaged and needy seeking legal advice from Panel

Cabinet creates a new and separate “Ministry of Cooperation”

Cabinet creates a new and separate “Ministry of Cooperation” In a historic move, a separate ‘Ministry of Co-operation’ has been created by the Modi Government for realizing the vision of ‘Sahkar se Samriddhi’. This ministry will provide a separate administrative, legal and policy framework for strengthening the cooperative movement in the country. It will help deepen Co-operatives as a true people-based movement reaching up to the grassroots. In ou

Matsya Setu App and Fisheries sector

Matsya Setu App and Fisheries sector The app was developed by the ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (ICAR-CIFA), Bhubaneswar, with the funding support of the National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), Hyderabad. The online course app aims to disseminate the latest freshwater aquaculture technologies to the aqua farmers of the country. Matsya Setu app has species-wise/ subject-wise self-learning online course modules, where renowned aquaculture experts explain the basi

Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana and ADIP Scheme

Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana and ADIP Scheme Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana is a scheme for providing Physical Aids and Assisted-living Devices for Senior citizens belonging to the BPL category. This is a Central Sector Scheme, fully funded by the Central Government. The expenditure for implementation of the scheme is being met by the "Senior Citizens' Welfare Fund". The Scheme is being implemented by the Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation (

Pregnant women can take vaccination

Pregnant women can take vaccination Pregnant women in India are now eligible to get vaccinated against COVID-19 with the Union Health Ministry giving the approval based on recommendations of the National Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (NTAGI). The decision empowers pregnant women to make an informed choice on taking the COVID-19 vaccination, the Ministry said, adding these women can now register on Cowin or walk into the nearest vaccination centre to get themselves inoculated.

OPEC+ Countries

OPEC and OPEC+ Countries About OPEC It is an intergovernmental organization of 13 nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela). HQ is in Vienna, Austria. It aims to manage the supply of oil in an effort to set the price of oil in the world market, in order to avoid fluctuations that might affect the economies of both producing and purchasing countries. The current OPE

E Sanjeevani Telemedicine Service

E Sanjeevani Telemedicine Service Union Health Ministry's National Telemedicine Service – eSanjeevani has crossed another milestone by completing 7 million (70 lakh) consultations. Patients consult with doctors and specialists on a daily basis using this innovative digital medium to seek Health services. In another significant milestone, in June it served around 12.5 lakh patients, which is the highest since the services were launched last year in March. Currently, the Na

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