UPSC Courses

F-1 and M-1 Visa Programs

F-1 and M-1 Visa Programs Image Source - ustun law group It was recently discovered that the Indians received nearly twice as many US student visas this year than the Chinese, according to the monthly visa records. About F-1 and M-1 Visa Programs Country-specific evaluation China continues to be the major country sending students to the United States. The majority of overseas students now enrolled in US universities come from China. Students from South Korea are in third


Exercise VAJRA PRAHAR 2022 The 13th edition of the joint US-Indian exercise Vajra Prahar 2022 was just completed at Bakloh (Himachal Pradesh). image Source - Current Affairs Adda 247 Key Highlights The United States and Special Forces India alternate hosting the annual exercise. The military forces of a nation's special forces are responsible for conducting clandestine, anti-terrorist, and other specialized missions. Aim: The 21-day cooperative training gave t

Paddy Dwarfing

Paddy Dwarfing Image Source - The Indian Express In Punjab and Haryana, a strange illness has struck the paddy crop, "dwarfing" the plants. The 'Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus' (SRBSDV), so named after Southern China, where it was initially discovered in 2001, has been identified as the mystery's cause by scientists. Paddy Dwarfing Rice dwarf disease is characterised by plant stunting and the formation of white chlorotic spots on the leaf

National Sports Day 2022 UPSC

National Sports Day 2022 Image Source - Career India Every year on August 29th, India commemorates National Sports Day or Rashtriya Khel Divas in honour of hockey great Major Dhyan Chand, who was born on this day in 1905. Key Points India's National Sports Day was established in 2012, and it was first observed that year. The country honours its sporting heroes on this day. The Major Dhyan Chand Khel Ratna Award, Arjuna Award, Dronacharya Award, and Dhyan Chand Awards a

F/A 18 Super Hornet Fighter Jets  

F/A 18 Super Hornet Fighter Jets   Before India's first indigenous aircraft carrier (IAC) Vikrant is put into service, US aviation giant Boeing has suggested that the Indian Navy select the F/A 18 Super Hornet fighter plane. Key Features of F/A 18 The F/A-18 Super Hornet Block III is the most cutting-edge, battle-tested, multi-role frontline naval fighter in the world, offering special and differentiating capabilities as well as full compatibility with Indian Navy

Seti River Nepal

Seti River India is to develop two hydropower projects in Nepal, namely the West Seti Hydropower Project and the Seti River Hydropower Project. About the Project The MoU to establish the 1200 MW project was signed by Investment Board Nepal and National Hydro Power Corporation Ltd (India). Benefits: Year-round power production is a result of the projects. India will receive power through its national grid, either for internal use or export. Background: A joint venture to deve

Bhitarkanika National Park Odisha

Bhitarkanika National Park       Image Source - Kalinga tv There has been an increased confrontation between humans and crocodiles, now that the crocodile population in the Bhitarkanika National Park has reached saturation.     About Bhitarkanika National Park Orissa's Bhitarkanika National Park spans a massive 672 km2 region. It has India's second-largest mangrove habitat. A network of creeks and canals that rec

Anang Tal Lake

Anang Tal Lake Image Source - Journals of India The Anang Tal Lake in South Delhi has just been recognized as a monument of National significance by the Ministry of Culture through a gazette notification. Important National Monuments The Archaeological Survey of India designates the Monuments of National Importance (ASI). The preservation, promotion, and protection of the Monuments of National Importance fall under the purview of the Indian union government. According to t

Brahmos Missile

Brahmos Missile Three Indian Air Force (IAF) officers have had their employment terminated by the Ministry of Defense as a result of the unintentional launch of a BrahMos missile that landed in Pakistan. About Early in 1980s, Dr A P J Abdul Kalam established the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme, which went on to create a variety of guided missiles with a wide range of capabilities and ranges, including the Prithvi, Agni, Trishul, Akash, and Nag. Early in the

V.D. Savarkar

V.D. Savarkar In Mysore, the Savarkar Rath Yatra was launched by the former Chief Minister. About V.D . Savarkar He was born on May 28, 1883, into a Hindu Marathi family in Nashik, Maharashtra, and went by the name Swatantryaveer Savarkar, or "Veer," because of his bravery. He was a social reformer, politician, lawyer, writer, and founder of the Hindutva movement. Contribution to the Freedom Movement: He promoted Swadeshi and opposed imported commodities. O

Kerala Savari

Kerala Savari: India's first online taxi service as a public option To guarantee fair and courteous service to customers as well as fair compensation for auto-taxi workers, Kerala has launched "Kerala Savari," the nation's first online taxi service run by a State government. The necessity and the goals Governments are quite concerned about the alleged unfair business practices and violations of consumer rights by private, app-based taxi aggregators. As a result,

Mandala Art

Mandala Art Artists from all around the world have altered mandala patterns, adding their own interpretations and painting them as their own. About Mandala Sanskrit term that means "circle" or "centre" literally. It is described by a geometric arrangement that typically includes the circular form in some way. A mandala pattern is essentially continuous and can also be made in the shape of a square. Origin It is thought to have its roots in Buddh

Alpha Ship: INS Vikrant

Alpha Ship: INS Vikrant The first indigenous aircraft carrier built in India INS VIKRANT will soon join the fleet. By adopting the name, crest, and pennant number (R11) of India's first aircraft carrier, INS Vikrant, it will join the navy force. About INS VIKRANT Beginning in 2007, the project continued until the keel was laid in 2009. The 262-meter-long ship can sail at a top speed of 28 knots and has a full displacement of roughly 45,000 tonnes. It is powered by four g

Arctic Snailfish with Freeze Proteins

Arctic Snailfish with Freeze Proteins Scientists have discovered a fluorescent snailfish (Liparis gibbus) with antifreeze proteins coursing through its veins beneath a Greenland glacier. By doing this, snailfish may stop ice crystals from building up in their cells and bodily fluids. About the Discovery The first known Arctic bio fluorescent fish is also a result of the discovery of the Greenland snailfish. According to experts, it is uncommon for a marine animal to dis


Exo-moons Recently, with the aid of ground-based and space telescopes, scientists found approximately 5,000 exoplanets. About Exomoons Exomoons are regarded as those naturally occurring satellites that orbit exoplanets. Exomoons around any of these planets, though, are still untraceable. Exo-moon signals are too feeble due to their small sizes. Origin: The solar system is made up of multiple naturally occurring satellites of various masses and sizes. A few of these satell


Megalodon According to research, ancient Megalodon sharks were able to devour a whale in a few bites. About Megalodon Otodus megalodon is its scientific name. It is a mackerel shark species that were extinct millions of years ago. In the past 23 million to 2.6 million years, it inhabited the waters. It was the biggest shark to ever traverse the oceans of the planet. Description Around 70 tonnes, or the equivalent of 10 elephants, would have been the weight of the

Veer Durgadas Rathore

Veer Durgadas Rathore In Jodhpur, the statue of Veer Durgadas Rathore was recently unveiled by India's defence minister. About Veer Durgadas Rathore (1638-1718) He had defied Aurangzeb and was the Rathore Rajput General of the Kingdom of Marwar. A well-known warrior who is credited with leading the rebellion against the Mughals. During the Rajput War, Durgadas Rathore oversaw the Rathore army (1679–1707) Played a significant part in the Rajput Rebellion (1708&ndas

Mahanadi River

Mahanadi River The Mahanadi River in Odisha is currently flooded, as predicted by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). It is anticipated that a low-pressure region would develop over the Northern Bay of Bengal and bring severe rain to a few locations in Chhattisgarh and Odisha. About Mahanadi River             After the Godavari and Krishna River systems, the Mahanadi River system is the biggest river in the s

STEVE Phenomenon

STEVE Phenomenon After a severe solar storm struck Earth, the astronomical phenomena known as "Strong Thermal Emission Velocity Enhancement (STEVE)" made an unexpected appearance About STEVE phenomenon STEVE first emerged in the skies in 2017, and since then, he has returned frequently. The assertion that the phenomena have been visible in the sky since 1705 is supported by evidence. It is an extremely uncommon, enigmatic, luminous purple arc that appears nearer to

PIN Code History

PIN Code History Postal Index Number (PIN) completed 50 Years. About PIN code At the time of Independence, India had 23,344 post offices, most of which were located in urban areas. The postal system had to keep up with the nation's fast growth. As a result, it was first made available in India on August 15, 1972. Shriram Bhikaji Velankar, a senior member of the Posts and Telegraphs Board and additional secretary in the Union Ministry of Communications, was the person in cha

The Rhine River

The Rhine River Due to the exceptionally hot and dry weather, the Rhine river's water levels are quite low, making it difficult for many ships to travel the vital European commerce route with their cargo fully loaded. About Rhine river It is a western European canal that has played a significant role in the continent's culture and history. It is also among the most significant routes for industrial transportation worldwide. It begins high in the Swiss Alps in two headst

Dornier Maritime Surveillance Aircraft

Dornier Maritime Surveillance Aircraft In an effort to strengthen their bilateral defence cooperation, India recently gave the Sri Lankan Navy a Dornier maritime surveillance aircraft. About Dornier aircraft Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, a state-run aerospace company, is the manufacturer (HAL). Capabilities A short takeoff and landing aircraft is the Dornier 228 maritime patrol aircraft (STOL). The Indian Navy has been using this multipurpose light transport aircraft sin

Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS)

Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS) An indigenously created howitzer called ATAG took part in a 21-gun salute on July 4 at the Red Fort. About the ATAGS An indigenous 155 mm x 52 calibre howitzer gun is called the ATAGS. The name "howitzers" refers to a group of long-range artillery guns. The Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE), a unit of the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) with a location in Pune, is the key agency fo

Aurobindo Ghose

Aurobindo Ghose The 150th birth anniversary of Aurobindo Ghose will be observed on 15th August. About Aurobindo Ghose Often referred to as Yogi Rishi Aurobindo, this revolutionary, patriot, poet, educator, and philosopher was also well-known. Date of birth: August 15, 1872. When he was seven years old, his education was transferred to England. Contributions: Upon his return to India in 1893, he was appointed a state service officer. He was a professor at Baroda

African ‘orphan’ Crop

African ‘orphan’ Crop Researchers recently discovered genes in the regional food crops of Africa that can increase drought tolerance. About Orphan crops               Orphan crops are wholesome regional food crops that could be extremely important in the fight against hunger. Although they are not traded worldwide, these crops have evolved to be able to flourish in inclement weather. Crops Or

Butterfly Mine

Butterfly Mine The contentious "Butterfly Mine," an anti-personnel mine that is meant to prevent free movement of the soldiers along the enemy line, is said to have been used by Russia in the ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine. About               Anti-personnel landmines with the designations PFM-1 and PFM-1S are sometimes known as "Butterfly mines" or "Green Parrots." Thes

Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)

Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) The likelihood of above-average rainfall over much of Australia has increased due to a negative Indian Ocean dipole event that has been proclaimed. What is the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)? It is an atmosphere-ocean coupled phenomenon in the tropical Indian Ocean (like the El Nino is in the tropical Pacific), characterized by a difference in sea-surface temperatures. A ‘positive IOD’ — or simply ‘IOD’ — is associated with

Novel Langya Henipavirus

Novel Langya Henipavirus China's Shandong and Henan provinces have both reported cases of a novel Langya henipavirus (LayV). The zoonotic virus has been identified in 35 people so far, marking the first instances of human-to-animal transmission. What is the Langya virus? Henipaviruses, a new zoonotic virus is categorized as pathogens at biosafety level 4 (BSL4). They can cause serious sickness in both humans and animals, and there are currently no approved medicatio

Gold Exchange Traded Funds UPSC

Gold Exchange Traded Funds As part of their portfolio rebalancing strategy, investors pulled money out of gold Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) in July 2022, resulting in a net outflow of Rs 457 crore. Image Source - Finology Comparatively, in June 2022 there had been a net inflow of Rs 135 crore. About Gold Exchange Traded Funds Gold ETFs are passive investment products that are based on gold prices and invest in gold bullion with the goal of tracking the domestic physical gol


TEJAS JET FOR DELIVERY Malaysia has been promised 18 Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) "Tejas" from the Indian government. The single-engine jet also piqued the interest of Argentina, Australia, Egypt, the United States, Indonesia, and the Philippines. For 83 of the locally made Tejas planes, the Indian government awarded a USD6 billion contract to state-owned Hindustan Aeronautics Limited in 2021, with deliveries beginning in roughly 2023. What is Tejas Aircraft? &nb


ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EMISSION The Minister of State for Communications recently claimed that India's high levels of electromagnetic fields have no effect on the environment in a written response to a Rajya Sabha inquiry. What are Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Emissions? Invisible magnetic and electric fields of force combine to form electromagnetic fields. Differential voltages produce electric fields; the stronger the voltage, the stronger the resulting field. Electric c

Indian Virtual Herbarium

Indian Virtual Herbarium Indian Virtual Herbarium is attracting a lot of attention and is proving to be an intriguing project. About Indian virtual herbarium It is a database of dried plants. Indian Virtual Herbarium is an interesting collection of plants and preserved parts of plants.  The virtual herbarium also presents a rich botanical diversity of the country. In addition to digital images of the herbarium specimens, the label data for each species includes a

Rock Agama

Rock Agama Researchers from the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) conducted a survey to determine the precise locations of the rock agama in and around Bengaluru. About rock agama It is a particular kind of garden lizard that is widely distributed in southern India. It is a big animal with eye-catching orange and black colouring. They need to find external sources of heat, such as a heated rock or a sunny area on the wall, as they cannot produce their own body heat. They a

Lachit Borphukan

Lachit Borphukan The Assam government made a request to include Lachit Borphukan’s valour in textbooks. About Lachit Borphukan In Charaideo, the first seat of the Ahom monarchs was born on November 24, 1622. He commanded two combats against an ally Mughal army. Battle of Alaboi: This conflict took place on August 5, 1669, in North Guwahati, close to Dadara. A joint Mughal and Rajput army were led by Rajput Raja Ram Singh I, an ally of Aurangzeb who had authorized the

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant The Union Ministry of Earth Science’s (MoES) autonomous National Institute of Ocean Technology is building an ocean thermal energy conversion facility. It is being established in Kavaratti, the capital of Lakshadweep. It can produce 65 kilowatts (kW). The project will run the low-temperature thermal desalination plant, which produces 1 lakh liters of drinkable water per day out of seawater. ??????? About Ocean Thermal Energy Conver


EXTERNAL SECTOR REPORT 2022: IMF  The  International Monetary Fund (IMF) has released its 2022 External Sector Report and advises India to roll back stimulus packages gradually. Highlight of report                    Fiscal and monetary policy stimulus The International Monetary Fund (IMF) advised India to progressively reduce monetary and fiscal policy support. Go

Shrimad Rajchandra Mission

Shrimad Rajchandra Mission The Prime Minister of India inaugurated and laid the foundation stone of various projects of the Shrimad Rajchandra Mission worth more than 300 crore rupees at Dharampur in Gujarat. About Shrimad Rajchandra Mission Shrimad Rajchandra Mission Dharampur is a spiritual movement for inner transformation through wisdom, meditation, and selfless service. Founded by Pujya Gurudevshri Rakeshji, the organization works through 196 centers on five continents.


FINANCIAL INCLUSION INDEX The Composite Financial Inclusion Index (FI-Index) for the year ended March 31, 2022, has been made public by the Reserve Bank of India. It has improved to 56.4 in March 2022 vis-à-vis 53.9 in March 2021, with growth witnessed across all the sub-indices. The improvement has been seen across all its sub-indices Access, Usage, and Equality. The index is published annually in July. About financial index The RBI created the composite financ

London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR)

London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) (LIBOR) rose for the fourth straight session, rising roughly 2.5 basis points to 2.83229%, the highest since November 2008. What Is London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR)? It is a benchmark interest rate at which major global banks lend to one another in the international interbank market for short-term loans. It acts as a well-recognized important benchmark interest rate that represents the cost of borrowing for banks. It is administered by t


UDYAM PORTAL According to the Union Minister of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises, over one crore Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) have registered on the Udyam portal in the past 25 months. What is the Udyam portal?? It was introduced on July 1st, 2020. The Union MSME ministry introduced an online mechanism for registering MSMEs. Additionally, it is connected to the databases of the Goods and Services Tax Network and the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT).

Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)

About Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) The “regular monitoring” is done by the Archaeological Survey of India to assess the damage to its monuments by any atmospheric agents and the natural causes. About archaeological survey of India      It is the premier institution in India for archaeological research. ASI is an attached agency of the Ministry of Culture of the Government of India. The ASI is headed by a Director-General and is headqu


EXERCISE PITCH BLACK The Indian Air Force (IAF) will join 16 other nations, including Quad partner countries for Exercise Pitch Black, the biennial exercise hosted by the Australian Air Force. It takes place once every two years and is hosted by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). This warfare exercise generally takes place in Northern Australia's RAAF bases - Darwin and Tindal Aim: This exercise aims to practice Offensive Counter Air (OCA) and Defensive Counter Air (DCA)

Al Najah-IV and Ex VINBAX 2022

Al Najah-IV and Ex VINBAX 2022 Recently, the Indian Army conducted separate exercises with Oman and Vietnam. About Al Najah-IV and VINBAX 2022 The fourth edition of India-Oman joint military exercise ‘Al Najah-IV’ is scheduled to take place at Mahajan field firing ranges in Rajasthan. Indian Army and Royal Army of Oman will conduct their joint Military Exercise AL NAJAH-IV from 1st to 13th of August 2022. The main scope of the exercise includes professional intera

American Bullfrog & Brown Tree Snake

American Bullfrog & Brown Tree Snake The American bullfrog and Brown Tree Snake cost the world economy $16 billion, as per the study. The invasive duo has caused ecological damage in addition to ruining farm produce and causing expensive power interruptions. More than two million Brown Tree snakes populate the tiny Pacific Island, with one estimate calculating as many as 20 inhabitants per acre of Guam's jungle. The Brown Tree snakes have the most significant impact on P


AFRICAN SWINE FEVER The disease has been confirmed on a private pig farm at Kanichar grama panchayat in Kannur. This was first reported in November 2019 from the area of China bordering Arunachal Pradesh. About     African swine fever is a highly contagious and fatal animal disease that infects and leads to an acute form of hemorrhagic fever in domestic and wild pigs. Other symptoms of the disease include high fever, depression, anorexia, loss of ap

Karikiyoor Rock Paintings

Karikiyoor Rock Paintings The Researchers have discovered 5000-year-old rock paintings at Karikiyoor in Nilgiris. About Korikiyoor painting:   It is located in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. It is a series of over 300 images etched on the side of the cliff-face in Kothagiri. A variety of subjects are depicted in great detail that includes:  communities that lived in the area at that period. the wildlife they witnessed and their relationships with

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