UPSC Courses

Harvest Festivals in India

Harvest Festivals in India Makar Sankranti: Makar Sankranti denotes the entry of the sun into the zodiac sign of Makara (Capricorn) as it travels on its celestial path. The day marks the onset of summer and the six months auspicious period for Hindus known as Uttarayan, the northward movement of the sun. As a part of the official celebration of 'Uttarayan', the Gujarat government has been hosting the International Kite Festival since 1989. The festivities associated

Channapatna Toys

Channapatna Toys The Prime Minister has called upon to explore the possibility of e-marketing of Channapatna toys across the country and the world, during the India Toy Fair 2021. About Channapatna Toys: Channapatna toys are a particular form of wooden toys. Artisans of the town Channapatna in Karnataka manufactures them. In Kannada, Channapatna is also called “Gombegala Ooru”, which means toy town in English. Origin: The origin of these toys can be traced to the

Goldilocks Zones

Goldilocks Zones A habitable zone, also called the “Goldilocks zone”, is the area around a star where it is not too hot and not too cold for liquid water to exist on the surface of surrounding planets. Our Earth is in the Sun’s Goldilocks zone. If Earth were where the dwarf planet Pluto is, all its water would freeze; on the other hand, if Earth were where Mercury is, all its water would boil off. Life on Earth started in water, and water is a necessary ingredi

Mass Spectrometry

Mass Spectrometry Mass spectrometry is an analytical method useful for calculating the mass–to–charge ratio ( m / z) of one or more molecules. Using this, researchers can ionise or break down the compound into simple ions and then identify the molecules based on their masses. The current process of ionisation requires electrical potential of a few kilovolts, heat or high-energy ultraviolet lasers (UV-lasers). But now, a new method has been developed soft ionisation

New IT Rules related to Social Media

New IT Rules related to Social Media Social media companies are prohibited from hosting or publishing any unlawful information. This information is “in relation to the interest of the sovereignty and integrity of India, public order, friendly relations with foreign countries, etc. If such information is hosted or published the government can take down such information within 24 hours. The user will be given a notice before his/her content is taken down. The government c

Snow Leopard

Snow Leopard   Also known as Ghost of the mountains acts as an indicator of the health of the mountain ecosystem in which they live, due to their position as the top predator in the food web. Habitation: The Snow Leopard lives at high altitudes in the steep mountains of Central and Southern Asia, and in an extremely cold climate. They inhabit the higher Himalayan and trans-Himalayan landscape in the states/union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar


Chandrayaan-3 Chandrayaan-3 is likely to be launched in 2022 (earlier scheduled to be launched in late 2020). Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO’s) Chandrayaan-3 is India's third mission to Moon. It aims to make a soft landing in the Lunar South Pole’s Aitken basin. It will consist of only a lander and rover, as the orbiter of Chandrayaan-2 is still functioning and providing data.

Index of Eight Core Industries

Index of Eight Core Industries This index for January 2021 was released by the Office of the Economic Adviser, Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade. Eight Core Industries - Coal, Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Petroleum Refinery Products, Fertilizers, Steel, Cement, Electricity. These Core Industries comprise 40.27% of the weight of items included in the Index of Industrial Production (IIP). Since 2014, Electricity generation data from Renewable sources are also included.

COVAX Program

COVAX Program Ghana has become the first country in the world to receive a shipment of coronavirus vaccines under the COVAX program. Covid-19 Vaccines Global Access (COVAX) is a global initiative aimed at equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines. It is led by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), and others. It wants to vaccinate roughly 20% of the population in the 92 A

Inscription on Krishnadevraya’s death (of Vijayanagar) discovered

Inscription on Krishnadevraya’s death (of Vijayanagar) discovered The first-ever epigraphical reference to the date of death of Vijayanagar king Krishnadevaraya has been discovered at Honnenahalli in the Tumakuru district. As per the inscription, Krishnadevaraya, one of the greatest emperors of India who ruled from the South, died on October 17, 1529, Sunday, and incidentally, this day was marked by a lunar eclipse. The inscription (written in Kannada) is engraved on a slab

IT Regulation Rules 2021

IT Regulation Rules 2021 Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021 have been framed under the Information Technology Act, 2000, and it supersedes the IT Rules, 2011. It will ensure a harmonious, soft-touch oversight mechanism in relation to social media platform, digital media and OTT platforms etc. Part- II of these Rules to Social Media shall be administered by Ministry of Electronics and IT. These Rules empower the users of digital

Swachh Iconic Places

Swachh Iconic Places Ministry of Jal Shakti has selected 12 iconic sites to be transformed into ‘Swachh Tourist Destinations’ under Swachh Iconic Places (SIP) of Swachh Bharat Mission Grameen (SBM-G). Sites - Ajanta Caves, Sanchi Stupa, Kumbhalgarh Fort, Jaisalmer Fort, Sun Temple, Ramdevra, Golconda Fort, Chandigarh Rock Garden, Dal Lake, Mathura Banke Bihari Temple, Agra Fort, Bengal Kalighat Temple. SIP initiative aims at enhancing the experience of visitors by improving

Accredited Investor

Accredited Investor SEBI has proposed to introduce the concept of ‘accredited investors’ in the securities market. Accredited investors (Qualified investors or Professional investors) are those who have an understanding of various financial products and the risks and returns associated with them. They are able to take informed decisions regarding their investments and are recognised by many securities and financial market regulators globally. SEBI said the accreditation o

Kodaikanal Solar Observatory

Kodaikanal Solar Observatory Kodaikanal Solar Observatory (Koso) has estimated how the Sun had rotated over the Century, from digitized data extracted from old films and photographs. KoSO is an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology (DST). This estimation would help study the magnetic field generated in the interior of the Sun, which causes sunspots and results in extreme situations like the mini-ice age on Earth (absence of sunspots). It could hel

Indian Energy Exchange

Indian Energy Exchange IEX is the first and largest nationwide energy exchange platform in India, which has been operating since 2008. It is an automated trading platform for physical delivery of electricity, Renewable Energy Certificates and Energy Saving Certificates. It enables efficient price discovery and increases the accessibility and transparency of the power market in India. The benefiting open access consumers belong to various industries such as metal, food processin

United Nations Human Rights Council

United Nations Human Rights Council The 46th Session of the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) was held recently. The UNHRC replaced the former UN Commission on Human Rights. The 47-member UNHRC is an inter-governmental body that promotes and protects human rights around the globe. It discusses all thematic human rights violation issues and situations that require its attention throughout the year. It is made up of UN Member States which are elected by the UN General A

Carbon Watch

Carbon Watch It is India’s first app to assess the carbon footprint of an individual. Carbon footprint is the amount of greenhouse gases-especially carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by particular human activity. Chandigarh became the first state or Union Territory in India to launch the mobile application Carbon Watch.

National Urban Digital Mission

National Urban Digital Mission National Urban Digital Mission (NUDM) was launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) and the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). NUDM will create a shared digital infrastructure for urban India by working across the three pillars of people, process, and platform to provide holistic support to cities and towns. It will institutionalise a citizen-centric, principles-based and ecosystem-driven ap

India Urban Data Exchange

India Urban Data Exchange India Urban Data Exchange (IUDX) is an open-source software platform developed by the Smart Cities Mission and the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru. It facilitates the secure exchange of Smart City data amongst data platforms, 3rd party authenticated and authorised applications and other sources. This Smart City data could be monetised in the future, similar to the UPI for bank accounts and digital payments. It serves as an interface f

Smart Code Platform

Smart Code Platform It enables all ecosystem stakeholders to contribute to a repository of open-source code for various solutions and applications for urban governance. It addresses the challenges that Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) face in the development and deployment of digital applications to address urban challenges. The source code available on the platform will be free to use without any licensing or subscription fees, thus limiting costs to those involved with customising

Central Employment Guarantee Council

Central Employment Guarantee Council The Council was constituted under Section 10 of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 2005. The Central Government has constituted this Council to discharge the functions and perform duties assigned to it by or under the provisions of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005. Chairperson - Minister of Rural Development, Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare. It advises the Central Government on all ma


Bio-Restoration New technology for ecological restoration (Bio-restoration) was developed by Indian scientists. It is helping in the revival of mangroves degraded due to rising sea levels, climate change and human intrusion in the Sunderbans, West Bengal. The Sundarbans is a protected wetland under the Ramsar Convention and is also a UNESCO World Heritage site. Ecological restoration means reviving the native ecosystem in degraded areas while maintaining the diversity of or

Agriculture Infrastructure Development Cess

Agriculture Infrastructure Development Cess The Budget 2021-22 has proposed a new levy, Agriculture Infrastructure Development Cess (AIDC) on 29 items. The purpose of the new AIDC is to raise funds to finance spending on developing agriculture infrastructure. The new cess will be levied on 29 products, such as gold, silver, as well as imported alcohol (excluding beer), imported apple, pulses, palm oil, urea, and petrol/diesel including branded ones. The new cess will only offset the

African Swine Fever Virus

African Swine Fever Virus Scientists have found a natural mutation in the African swine fever virus (ASFV) that could be less deadly than the strain that ravaged the world’s largest pig herd in 2018 and 2019. ASFV is an intra cytoplasmically-replicating DNA arbovirus, which is the sole member of the family Asfarviridae. ASF is a severe viral disease that affects wild and domestic pigs resulting in a highly lethal haemorrhagic fever but doesn’t affect humans. It has a

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Ministry of Health & Family Welfare is going to integrate Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) with NPCDCS. NPCDCS - National Programme for Prevention & Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke. Conditions - It is a distinct hepatic condition where there is an accumulation of excess fat in the liver of people who drink little or no alcohol, causing fatty liver. Causes - NAFLD is a part of the m

International Atomic Energy Agency

International Atomic Energy Agency Iran will continue to give access to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to its declared nuclear sites for 3 months. IAEA’s genesis was U.S. President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” address to the United Nations General Assembly in 1953. It was established in 1957 as an autonomous organization which is not under the direct control of the UN. Headquartered in Vienna, IAEA seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear ener

International Space Station

International Space Station It is the only active modular space station (habitable artificial satellite) in the Earth’s Orbit. It is the largest artificial object in space and the largest satellite in low Earth orbit, visible to the naked eye from Earth's surface. It is a joint project between five participating space agencies - NASA (USA), Roscosmos, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), European Space Agency, and Canadian Space Agency.

Progress MS-16 Cargo Ship

Progress MS-16 Cargo Ship Progress MS-16 or Progress 77 cargo ship has delivered water, propellant and other supplies to the International Space Station (ISS). Progress MS-16 is an unmanned Russian cargo ship launched by Russian Space Agency, Roscosmos.

VL-SRSAM Missile System

VL-SRSAM Missile System Vertical Launch Short Range Surface to Air Missile (VL-SRSAM) was launched by Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO). It is indigenously designed and developed by DRDO, along with Research Centre Imarat, and the Pune-based Research and Development Establishment (Engineers). Once deployed, the VL-SRSAM system will prove to be a force multiplier for the Indian Navy. An effective Weapon Control System (WCS), it would neutralize

Tree City Status to Hyderabad

Tree City Status to Hyderabad Hyderabad city has the ‘Tree Cities of the World’ status by the Arbor Day Foundation jointly with the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation. It is the only city in India to have been selected for this recognition for its commitment to growing and maintaining urban and community forestry. Hyderabad applied for this recognition, citing the State government’s Haritha Haram programme and its initiative for the Urban Forest Parks.

Siberian Mammoths

Siberian Mammoths Scientists have recovered and sequenced the oldest DNA on record, from the molars of mammoths that roamed Siberia up to 1.2 million years ago. Until now, the oldest DNA came from a horse that lived in Canada's Yukon Territory about 700,000 years ago. Researchers gained insights into mammoth evolution and migration by comparing the DNA to that of mammoths that lived more recently (4,000 years ago). The molars of the mammoths were discovered near the Krestovka Riv

One Nation One Standard

One Nation One Standard Mission "One Nation One Standard" would make India the leader in setting global benchmarks in setting standards. This mission was established in 2019 to ensure quality products and services to consumers in the country. While all areas of production and services be included in this mission, bringing a national uniformity and standardization in all kinds of public procurement and tendering can be an immediate deliverable. The Bureau of Indian Standards

Sri Nankana Sahib Massacre

Sri Nankana Sahib Massacre Nankana Sahib is the birthplace of the first Sikh guru, Guru Nanak Dev. The centenary of the Sri Nankana Sahib Massacre (Saka Nankana Sahib) is being marked in an event in Nankana Sahib on February 21, 2021. It was also the site of the first big agitation by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC) to take back control of gurdwaras from priests (mahants) backed by the British. Sikh leaders made attempts to bring mahant to the negotiation table but

Governing Council of NITI Aayog

Governing Council of NITI Aayog The sixth meeting of the Governing Council of NITI Aayog was held under the chairmanship of Prime Minister with following agenda: Making India a Manufacturing Powerhouse Reimagining Agriculture Improving Physical Infrastructure Accelerating Human Resources Development Improving Service Delivery at Grassroots Level Health and Nutrition Governing Council is the premier body tasked with evolving a shared vision of national develop

Draft Act on Land Titles

Draft Act on Land Titles Following are the provisions proposed under the draft Act: Setting up of State land authority: Under the proposal, each state is to set up a land authority that will have a title registration officer (TRO) who will prepare a title record based on document-based claims from the presumptive owners and any claimants. Draft list of presumptive ownership: The authority will then publish a draft list of the presumptive ownership of ever

UNEP report on CO2 Emissions

UNEP report on CO2 Emissions In its recent report, UNEP highlighted that CO2 emissions from the building sector are highest in 2019. The building sector emitted more than a third of global energy-related carbon dioxide. Of the total global emissions, building operations accounted for 28% & construction-related industries (cement, glass, etc) accounted for 10%. The use of fossil fuels for power generation & carbon-intensive electricity sector contributed to the increased CO2 emi

Ease of Doing Business Rankings

Ease of Doing Business Rankings The ease of doing business index is an index created jointly by Simeon Djankov and Gerhard Pohl, two leading economists at the World Bank Group. The report is released by the World Bank. Why in news: 2020 data irregularities controversy: Several major newspapers – including the Financial Times, The Economist, and The Wall Street Journal – report that the data of China, Azerbaijan, United Arab

Himalayan trillium

Himalayan trillium Trillium govanianum- the Himalayan herb is often called Nagchatri in local areas. It is found in temperate and sub-alpine zones of the Himalayas at an altitude from 2,400-4,000 metres above sea level. In India, it is found in four states only - Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, and Uttarakhand. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has placed Himalayan trillium in “Endangered” category. Its population is expected t

WCCB wins Asia Environmental Enforcement Award-2020

WCCB wins Asia Environmental Enforcement Award-2020 The Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) has received the Asia Environmental Enforcement Award-2020.  It is awarded by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). WCCB got the award twice in three years.  It has been awarded this year under the Innovation category.   Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) It is a statutory body constituted under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Ministry: Minist

Declining Rainfall in Mawsynram

Why does it rain highest in Mawsynram? Because of the uneven relief of India due to the presence of a number of hill ranges, the monsoon is not able to shed its moisture evenly over India. Windward sides receive more rainfall and leeward sides receive less rainfall. Mawsynram lies in the funnel-shaped depression caused by the Khasi range in Meghalaya. The Bay of Bengal branch of monsoons is trapped in it and causes heavy rainfall. Decreasing rainfall trends The research an

India Energy Outlook Report 2021

India Energy Outlook 2021 This report was released by the International Energy Agency (IEA). It has been forecasted that India will overtake the European Union as the world’s third-largest energy consumer by 2030. At present, India is the fourth-largest global energy consumer behind China, the United States and the European Union. It is based on the forecast that India accounts for the biggest share of energy demand growth over the next two decades. India’s primary ener

CPI-Agriculture Labour and CPI-Rural Labour

CPI-Agriculture Labour and CPI-Rural Labour Consumer Price Index (CPI) for Agricultural Labourers (AL) and Rural Labourers (RL) for the month of January 2021 is decreased. The major contribution towards the fall in general index of AL and RL came from the fall in prices of pulses, onion, potato, brinjal etc. The fall/rise in index varied from State to State. Consumer Price Index It examines the weighted average of prices of a basket of consumer goods and services, such as tr

Intensified Mission Indradhanush

Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare has launched Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 3.0 and the IMI 3.0 portal. Focus of the IMI 3.0 will be the children and pregnant women who have missed their vaccine doses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Beneficiaries from migration areas and hard to reach areas will be targeted. Mission Indradhanush was launched in 2014 to provide affordable and accessible healthcare to all citizens of the country. The present 8th campaign will targ

Acute Encephalitis Syndrome

Acute Encephalitis Syndrome A child has recently been diagnosed with Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) in Bihar, the first case for this year. AES, locally called chamki bukhar (fever causing seizure), usually surfaces during summer in the flood-prone districts of north Bihar. It is characterized by acute-onset of fever and a change in mental status (mental confusion, disorientation, delirium, or coma) along with new-onset of seizures in a person of any age at any time of the year. T

Nurturing Neighborhoods Challenge

Nurturing Neighborhoods Challenge Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs selected 25 cities selected for the Nurturing Neighbourhoods Challenge under the Smart Cities Mission. These cities would carry out projects for making early childhood-friendly neighbourhoods. It aims to work with Indian cities and their partners to improve public space, mobility, data management across city agencies, etc. Selected cities - Bengaluru, Coimbatore, Erode, Agartala, Indore, Kakinad

Sambhar Lake

Sambhar Lake The Sambhar Salt Lake is India's largest inland saltwater body located near Jaipur in Rajasthan. The lake is surrounded on all sides by the Aravali hills.  It is the source of most of Rajasthan's salt production. Sambhar has been designated as a Ramsar site (recognized wetland of international importance) because the wetland is a key wintering area for tens of thousands of flamingos and other birds that migrate from northern Asia.

NASA's Perseverence Rover to Mars

NASA's Perseverence Rover to Mars After a seven months journey from Earth, the NASA Perseverance is in its final stretch towards the destination Mars. About the Perseverance rover: Launched in July of 2020. It is expected to touch down on Mars at the Jezero Crater. The primary task of Perseverance is to seek signs of ancient life and collect samples of rock and regolith to possibly return these to Earth. Perseverance is fueled by electrical power by usin

Extinction Rebellion

Extinction Rebellion Extinction Rebellion (XR) was launched in the United Kingdom in 2018, as a response to the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report that declared, We only have 12 years to stop catastrophic climate change and We have entered the 6th mass extinction event. It is a global movement to persuade governments to act justly on the Climate and Ecological Emergency. It is a decentralised and politically non-partisan move

Juvenile Justice Bill, 2021

Juvenile Justice Bill, 2021 The Union Cabinet approved amendments to the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2015. As per the amendment, the district magistrates (DM) and additional district magistrates (ADM) will monitor the functioning of various agencies responsible for implementation of the JJ Act in every district. The DM can independently evaluate juvenile police unit, specialised Child Welfare Committees (CWC) and registered Child Care Institution (CCI). The

Afghani Chadar to Ajmer Dargah

Afghani Chadar to Ajmer Dargah Afghanistan President has sent the first ever sacred 'Chadar' to the Ajmer Sharif Dargah through its diplomatic mission in New Delhi. This Chadar was given during the 809th 'Urs (Death Anniversary) Mubarak' of Khawaja Gharib Nawaz, which is ongoing in Ajmer. Ajmer Sharif Dargah Ajmer Sharif Dargah is a Sufi shrine of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti, who is well-known for his secular preachings. Located in Rajasthan, it was bu

Delimitation Commission to Hold Delimitation Exercise in J&K

Delimitation Commission to Hold Delimitation Exercise in J&K Delimitation Commission holds a meeting to seek views on the delimitation process of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Delimitation Act, 2002 This Act was enacted to set up a Delimitation Commission for the purpose of effecting delimitation on the basis of the 2001 census. The Delimitation Commission would re-fix the number of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes based on the 2001 censu

Majuli-Jorhat Bridge

Majuli-Jorhat Bridge A 6.8 km-long two-lane major bridge is being constructed over the Brahmaputra between Majuli (north bank) and Jorhat (south bank) on NH-715K. This bridge will provide all-time access to the people living in Majuli town with rest of Assam to meet their health, education and day to day development activities. The constructions of this bridge also provide a safe evacuation access to the people of Majuli Island during flood in Brahmaputra River. Majuli island is f

Circular Economy

Circular Economy It is an economic system aimed at eliminating waste; and the continual use of resources. It is a system of resource utilization where reduction, reuse and recycling of elements prevail. Circular systems create a closed system, minimizing the use of resource input and the creation of waste, pollution and emissions. It is an alternative to a traditional linear economy. This linear economy is modelled on the take-make-waste industrial model (make, use, dispose o

Mahabahu-Brahmaputra project

Mahabahu-Brahmaputra project The Central Government has laid the foundation of the Mahabahu-Brahmaputra project to initiate developmental activities near the Brahmaputra and the surrounding areas of the Barak River and to provide seamless connectivity to the region.  Under this project, the foundation stone of a four-lane bridge over the Brahmaputra River between Dhubri (North Coast) and Phulbari (South Coast) will be laid. The proposed bridge will be located on NH-127B, which

Greater Tipraland

Greater Tipraland ‘Greater Tipraland’ has been a political demand on the lines of ‘Greater Nagalim’, and seeks to – in a democratic manner – cater to the aspirations of Tripuris in Mamit of Mizoram, Kachar and Hailakandi in Assam, and even in Khagrachari, Bandarban, and Chittagong of Bangladesh.

Indian Sign Language Dictionary launched

Indian Sign Language Dictionary Launched Prepared by the Indian Sign Language Research and Training Centre under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. To give deaf people the constitutional right to speech and opportunity of freedom of expression.

Liquidity Coverage Ratio

Liquidity Coverage Ratio Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR) indicates the proportion of highly liquid assets held by banks to ensure their ability to meet short-term obligations. This ratio is essentially a generic stress test that aims to make sure that financial institutions possess suitable capital to ride out any short-term liquidity disruptions. How to Calculate the Liquidity Coverage Ratio? The LCR is calculated by dividing a bank's high-quality liquid assets

Production-Linked Incentive Scheme for the Telecom Sector

Production-Linked Incentive Scheme for the Telecom Sector Aim of the scheme: It will make India a global hub for manufacturing telecom equipment. It will create jobs and reduce imports, especially from China. The focus of the scheme: The scheme will offset the huge import of telecom equipment worth more than Rs 50,000 crore. It will encourage foreign manufacturers and domestic manufacturers to set up production units in India.   Coverage: The scheme will cover

India-Mauritius CECPA

India-Mauritius CECPA India-Mauritius Comprehensive Economic Cooperation and Partnership Agreement (CECPA) will be the first trade Agreement to be signed by India with a country in Africa. This limited agreement will cover Trade in Goods and Services, Rules of Origin, Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures, Dispute Settlement, etc., It will also cover the Movement of Natural Persons, Telecom, Financial services, Customs Procedures and Cooperation i

e-Chhawani Portal

e-Chhawani Portal It is an online multi-tenancy central platform. It aims to provide citizen-centric municipal services to the citizens across 62 Cantonment Boards. The residents of cantonment areas can register their complaints regarding civic issues and resolve them while sitting at home. People can get their documents like trade licence, sewerage connectivity applications can be made through the portal. Cantonment Board A cantonment board, an urban local body, was estab

Dhubri-Phulbari Bridge

Dhubri-Phulbari Bridge A 19-km-long four-lane Bridge between Dhubri (Assam) and Phulbari (Meghalaya) over the river Brahmaputra on NH-127B will be constructed. Once completed in 2028, it will be India's longest bridge. This bridge will reduce travel time between Assam and Meghalaya by 6 hours, and distance to 19 km from 200 km. Through this bridge, Assam and Meghalaya will have a direct connection with West Bengal. It will provide a third alternative link to Meghalaya, Manip

Traffic Crash Injuries and Disabilities Report

Traffic Crash Injuries and Disabilities Report What is the News? The World Bank released a report titled “Traffic Crash Injuries and Disabilities: The Burden on Indian Society”. It highlights the Socio-Economic impacts of road accidents in India. Published by: World Bank in collaboration with SaveLIFE Foundation. India tops the world in road crash deaths and injuries. It has 1% of the world’s vehicles but accounts for 11% of all road crash deaths. It is

Constitutional Provisions for Reservation in Education and Jobs

Constitutional Provisions for Reservation in Education and Jobs Part XVI deals with the reservation of SC and ST in Central and State legislatures. Article 15(4) and 16(4) of the Constitution enabled the State and Central Governments to reserve seats in government services for the members of the SC and ST. The Constitution was amended by the Constitution (77th Amendment) Act, 1995 and a new clause (4A) was inserted in Article 16 to enable the government to provide reservations in promo

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala is the New WTO Head

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala is the New WTO Head Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala has been appointed the new chief of the World Trade Organization, becoming the first woman to ever lead the institution and the first African citizen to take on the role.   Roles and functions of Director General of WTO: The director-general of the World Trade Organization is the officer of the World Trade Organization responsible for supervising and directing the organization’s administrative operations. The

Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana & Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana

Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana & Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana PMJJBY (Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana) PMSBY (Pradhan Mantri Surakhsa Bima Yojana)  PMJJBY (Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana) is a life insurance scheme. PMSBY (Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana) is an accidental insurance scheme.  The age limit for PMJJBY (Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana

Maharaja Suheldev

Maharaja Suheldev Suheldev was a legendary medieval-era warrior-king. He is mentioned in Mirat-i-Masudi. According to the legend, Suhaldev was the eldest son of King Mordhwaj of Shravasti, during the 11th century. Though his historical existence is shrouded in mystery, he is today popular as a caste icon among the Rajbhars (OBC) and the Pasis (second largest Dalit caste in U.P.), both of whom have been competing for his legacy. According to critiques, BJP over the year

New Guidelines for the Geo-Spatial Sector

New Guidelines for the Geo-Spatial Sector  What is the news? The Ministry of Science and Technology has released new guidelines for the Geospatial sector in India. It deregulated the existing protocol and liberalizes the sector into a more competitive field. What is a Geo-Spatial Data? Geospatial data is data about objects, events, or phenomena that have a location on the surface of the earth. The location may be static in the short-term, like the location of a road,

Leatherback Sea Turtle

Leatherback Sea Turtle  It is the largest of the seven species of sea turtles.  Other species are: Olive Ridley turtle, Green turtle, Hawksbill turtle, Loggerhead turtle, Leatherback turtle Except the Loggerhead, the remaining four species nest along the Indian coast. It is found in all oceans except the Arctic and the Antarctic. Within the Indian Ocean, they nest only in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is the only living species in the gen

National Marine Turtle Action Plan

National Marine Turtle Action Plan The Ministry of Environment has released National Marine Turtle Action Plan in which A&N Islands are given prominent importance.  According to the plan, India has identified all its important sea turtle nesting habitats as ‘Important Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Areas.  These areas have been included in the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) – 1. South Bay and West Bay on Little Andaman and Galathea on Great Nicobar, are ment

UAE’s Hope Probe Enters Mars Orbit

UAE’s Hope Probe Enters Mars Orbit The probe took off from the Tanegashima Space Centre in Japan in July 2020. UAE becomes the fifth entity to reach the Red Planet, joining NASA, the Soviet Union, the European Space Agency and India.  The mission will collect data on Martian climate dynamics and help scientists understand why Mars' atmosphere is decaying into space. Other Missions to Mars: Apart from the UAE’s ‘Hope Probe’, two

Dickinsonia Fossils Found in Bhimbetka Caves

Dickinsonia Fossils Found in Bhimbetka Caves Researchers discovered three fossils in Madhya Pradesh. These fossils are possible of the earliest known living animal named ‘Dickinsonia’ (550-million-year-old). The fossils are found on the roof of Auditorium Cave at Bhimbetka Rock Shelters. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Madhya Pradesh. The fossil can be identified from the white leaf-like patches with a central vertebra (central midrib) and connecting veins. Thes

Ashok Dalwai Committee

Ashok Dalwai Committee The government announced to double farm incomes by 2022 in its Union Budget 2016-17. In line with this, it appointed an 8-member inter-ministerial committee headed by Ashok Dalwai, to consider major reforms in the agriculture sector. It was tasked to prepare a blueprint for a transition of farm policies from being production-oriented to based on incomes or value addition.

Humboldt Penguin

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